Afghanistan Empire, Ahmed Shah Abdali
Ahmad Shah Abdali (1726–1773) (aka Ahmad Shah Durrani whose birth name was Ahmad Khan) was the founder of the Durrani dynasty in Afghanistan. He was born in Kandahar of Afghanistan, the son of Samm ... show more
Ahmad Shah Abdali (1726–1773) (aka Ahmad Shah Durrani whose birth name was Ahmad Khan) was the founder of the Durrani dynasty in Afghanistan. He was born in Kandahar of Afghanistan, the son of Sammaun-Khan, hereditary chief of the Abdali tribe. Shah favored Abdali above the rest because of Abdali’s young, handsome features. Abdali was then given the title of “Dur-Durran” (Pear of Pearls) by Shah and then Abdali changed the Abdali tribe name to the Durrani tribe. Shah gave Abdali the command over a cavalry of Abdali tribesmen.
He took the opportunity to seize the Persian treasures and invade Khorasan. He headed to Kandahar and persuaded the local tribes to join his “Kingdom of Doom.” He made his own crown with the “koh e noor” which he had stolen from the Persians.
And so Abdali’s reign of terror began. Abdali first crossed the Indus River in 1748, when he first took Lahore-which was in Hindustan at that time. In 1751, he invaded Lahore once more and looted the city from top to bottom, leaving nothing left. To this day, the Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims of that region call him the Devil of Afghanistan. He and his tribesmen tortured, killed, looted, and raped the people of the region. He and his tribesmen took back their booty to Kandahar to enjoy their stolen goods. In the course of his life, he raided India nine times.
In 1750, Abdali took Nishapur and in 1752, he attacked Kashmir. In 1756, he invaded Dehli and looted every corner. He stole the valuable treasures of the Moghul Empire and everything else he could get his hands on.
In the meantime, Abdali made another addition to his collection of wives; a princess from the Imperial family. He treated her the same way he treated his other wives and his daughters. He made her strip and dance in a “mordagow khana.”
When the Maratha chiefs declared a traditional Sikh holy war on Abdali, he took this as an opportunity to cross the Indus again and attack them, setting their villages on fire. In 1758, the Marathas gained possession of Punjab, but the victory was short-lived. On January 6, 1761, they lost to Abdali in the great battle of Panipat.
In a later raid, Abdali inflected a severe defeat upon the Sikhs but had to immediately head westward back to Kandahar to quell a rising insurrection. Meanwhile, the Sikhs rose again in power and Abdali was forced to abandon his hopes of retaining the command over the Punjab.
It is because of Abdali that the Moghul Dynasty, as well as Afghanistan, was colonized by the British. Over the course of 25 years, he weakened India and its Raj and local government. He adventured into India numerous times and each time, he returned with gold, camels, women, etc. He left a great number of people dead, destroyed cities and lives and families. All of this seemed like fun to him and his people. Therefore, when he died in 1773, his sons began fighting over the throne. The British took this moment of weakness to step in and create more division. Abdali’s sons were busy fighting against and killing each other. The British aided the brothers in staying enemies and gradually they weakened the state and took over.
This led to the creation of modern-day Afghanistan. Since then, the non-Pashtuns of Afghanistan have had to deal with these treacherous and corrupt Pashtuns who have occupied our land. The Pashtuns call Abdali the Father of the Nation. But why should we, the Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, etc. accept that title and claim? Abdali is not the Father of our Nation. He was an untrustworthy opportunist, an invader who raided and destroyed our land. We are still left to deal with the remaining savage Pashtuns. The Father of our Nation is Saman Khuda, the man who wrestled our land back from the Arabs and established a civilized and prosperous land. Ahmad Shah Abdali was the enemy of our nation, the destroyer of our nation. For non-Pashtuns to celebrate and honor Abdali would be treason.