Philip de Barry Coat of Arms, Ireland
The Norman invasion of Ireland was a two-stage process, which began on 1 May 1169 when a force of loosely associated Norman knights landed near Bannow, County Wexford at the request of Dermot MacMurro ... show more
The Norman invasion of Ireland was a two-stage process, which began on 1 May 1169 when a force of loosely associated Norman knights landed near Bannow, County Wexford at the request of Dermot MacMurrough (Diarmait Mac Murchada), the ousted King of Leinster, who sought their help in regaining his kingdom.
On 18 October 1171, Henry II landed a much bigger army in Waterford to ensure his continuing control over the preceding Norman force. In the process he took Dublin and had accepted the fealty of the Irish kings and bishops by 1172, so creating the Lordship of Ireland, which formed part of his Angevin Empire.
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Privilege of Pope Alexander III to Henry II
Treaty of Windsor
Pope Adrian IV, the only English pope, in one of his earliest acts issued a papal bull in 1155, giving Henry authority to invade Ireland as a means of ensuring reform by bringing the Irish Church more directly under the control of the Holy See. Little contemporary use, however, was made of the bull Laudabiliter since its text enforced papal suzerainty not only over the island of Ireland but of all islands off of the European coast, including England, in virtue of the Constantinian Donation. The relevant text reads:
There is indeed no doubt, as thy Highness doth also acknowledge, that Ireland and all other islands which Christ the Son of Righteousness has illumined, and which have received the doctrines of the Christian faith, belong to the jurisdiction of St. Peter and of the holy Roman Church.
References to Laudabiliter become more frequent in the later Tudor period when the researches of the Renaissance humanist scholars cast doubt on the historicity of the Donation. But even if the Donation was spurious, other documents such as Dictatus papae (1075–87) reveal that by the 12th century the Papacy felt it had political powers superior to all kings and local rulers.
Pope Alexander III, who was Pope at the time of the invasion, mentioned and reconfirmed the effect of Laudabiliter in his "Privilege" of 1172.
Invasion of 1169
Original landing site for the invasion –
After losing the protection of Tyrone Chief, Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn, High King of Ireland, who died in 1166, MacMorrough was forcibly exiled by a confederation of Irish forces under the new High King, Rory O'Connor. MacMurrough fled first to Bristol and then to Normandy. He sought and obtained permission from Henry II of England to use the latter's subjects to regain his kingdom. Having received an oath of fealty from Dermod, Henry gave him letters patent in the following words:
Henry, King of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to all his liegemen, English, Norman, Welsh and Scotch, and to all the nations under his dominion, greeting. When these letters shall come into your hands, know ye, that we have received Dermod, Prince of Leinster, into the bosom of our grace and benevolence. Wherefore, whosoever, in the ample extent of all our territories, shall be willing to assist in restoring that prince, as our vassal and liegeman, let such person know, that we do hereby grant to him our licence and favour for the said undertaking.
By 1167 MacMurrough had obtained the services of Maurice Fitz Gerald and later persuaded Rhys ap Gruffydd Prince of Deheubarth to release Fitz Gerald's half-brother Robert Fitz-Stephen from captivity to take part in the expedition. Most importantly he obtained the support of the Earl of Pembroke Richard de Clare, known as Strongbow.
The first Norman knight to land in Ireland was Richard fitz Godbert de Roche in 1167, but it was not until 1169 that the main body of Norman, Welsh and Flemish forces landed in Wexford. Within a short time Leinster was conquered, Waterford and Dublin were under Diarmait's control. Strongbow married Diarmait's daughter, Aoife, and was named as heir to the Kingdom of Leinster. This latter development caused consternation to Henry II, who feared the establishment of a rival Norman state in Ireland. Accordingly, he resolved to visit Leinster to establish his authority.
Arrival of Henry II in 1171
Henry landed with a large fleet at Waterford in 1171, becoming the first King of England to set foot on Irish soil. Both Waterford and Dublin were proclaimed Royal Cities. In November Henry accepted the submission of the Irish kings in Dublin. In 1172 Henry arranged for the Irish bishops to attend the Synod of Cashel and to run the Irish Church in the same manner as the Church in England. Adrian's successor, Pope Alexander III, then ratified the grant of Ireland to Henry, ".. following in the footsteps of the late venerable Pope Adrian, and in expectation also of seeing the fruits of our own earnest wishes on this head, ratify and confirm the permission of the said Pope granted you in reference to the dominion of the kingdom of Ireland."
Henry was happily acknowledged by most of the Irish Kings, who saw in him a chance to curb the expansion of both Leinster and the Normans. He then had to leave for England to deal with papal legates investigating the death of Thomas Becket in 1170, and then for France to suppress the Revolt of 1173–1174. His next involvement with Ireland was the Treaty of Windsor in 1175 with Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair.
However, with both Diarmuid and Strongbow dead (in 1171 and 1176 respectively) and Henry back in England, within two years this treaty was not worth the vellum it was inscribed upon. John de Courcy invaded and gained much of east Ulster in 1177, Raymond FitzGerald (known as Raymond le Gros) had already captured Limerick and much of the Kingdom of Thomond (also known as North Munster), while the other Norman families such as Prendergast, fitz-Stephen, fitz-Gerald, fitz-Henry and le Poer were actively carving out petty kingdoms for themselves.
In 1185 Henry awarded his Irish territories to his 18-year-old youngest son, John, with the title Dominus Hiberniae ("Lord of Ireland"), and planned to establish it as a kingdom for him. When John unexpectedly succeeded his brother Richard as king in 1199, the Lordship became a possession of the English Crown.
While the main Norman invasion concentrated on Leinster, with submissions made to Henry by the other provincial kings, the situation on the ground outside Leinster remained unchanged. However, individual groups of knights invaded:
Connacht in 1175 and 1200–03, led by William de Burgh
Munster in 1177, led by Raymond le Gros
East Ulster in 1177, led by John de Courcy
These further conquests were not planned by or made with royal approval, but were then incorporated into the Lordship under Henry's control, as with Strongbow's initial invasion
About Philip De Barry
Philip de Barry, was a Cambro-Norman warrior from Manorbier in Pembrokeshire who participated in the colonisation of Kingdom of Desmond following the Norman invasion of Ireland. He was the founder of the Barry or De Barry family in County Cork, and common ancestor of the barons Barry and earls of Barrymore. Philip was born circa 1137/44 and was described by his (not totally impartial) brother Gerald as a wise and honourable man (vir probus ac prudens). He died while his brother Gerald was at Rome in 1199-1200 and was entombed in the church of Manorbier. Nesta Philip's role in the invasion and colonisation of Ireland, and his position in the medieval Welsh-Irish Norman society, was largely due to his membership of the extended family of descendants of Princess Nest or Nesta of Deheubarth. Nest had three sons and a daughter bu her first husband Gerald de Windsor: the daughter, Angharad, married William de Barry. Philip was the son of William Fitz Odo de Barry was the son of Odo or Otho, a Norman knight who assisted in the Norman Conquest of England and Wales during the 11th century. William rebuilt Manorbier Castle in stone and the family retained the lordship of Manorbier until the 15th century. Philip's mother was Angharad, daughter of Gerald and Nest. Philip succeeded his father at Manorbier. His uncle (his mother Angharad's half brother) was Robert Fitz-Stephen whose cousins were the founders of the great FitzGerald and Carew families in Ireland. Philip's full brothers were Robert and Gerald. Robert de Barry accompanied his half-uncle Robert Fitz-Stephen in the Norman invasion of Ireland and took part in the Siege of Wexford. While some sources say that he was killed at the battle of Lismore in 1185, this is probably not true (see note below). Gerald of Wales, alias Giraldus Cambrensis, was a clergyman and historian. He also had a half-brother - Walter.  Lands in Ireland Philip de Barry came to Ireland at the end of February 1183, accompanied by his brother Gerald and their followers, to take possession of his lands and to assist his half-uncle Robert Fitz-Stephen, and his first cousin Raymond FitzGerald (also known as Raymond Le Gros), in their efforts to recover lands in the modern county of Cork. These cantrefs or baronies had been expropriated by another (half) first cousin, Ralph Fitz-Stephen (or Radulph). Ralph was the grandson of Nesta by Stephen, Constable of Cardigan. In 1182 he was killed together with his father-in-law, Milo de Cogan, who had been granted of the second half of the kingdom of Cork. Robert Fitz-Stephen eventually ceded these territories to Philip, his half-nephew. These territories consisted of three cantrefs in Fitz-Stephen's half of the Kingdom of Desmond ("the kingdom of Cork") viz. Olethan, Muschiri-on-Dunnegan (or Muskerry Donegan) and Killyde (or Killede) by the service of ten knights. These cantrefs became the baronies or hundreds of Oliehan, Oryrry and Ogormliehan respectively. The name "Oliehan" is an anglicisation of the Gaelic Uí Liatháin which refers to the early medieval kingdom of the Uí Liatháin. This petty kingdom encompassed most of the land in Barrymore and the neighbouring barony of Kinnatalloon. Oryrry is currently known as the Barony of Orrery and Kilmore. The name Killyde survives in "Killeady Hills", the name of the hill country south of the city of Cork. According to Smith,  "on the north side of the city stood Shandon Castle, built by the Barrys soon after the Conquest, or, as some say, by King John,". According to Rev. Barry, the baronies were "coextensive with the ecclesiastical deaneries of Olethan and Muscry Donnegan in the diocese of Cloyne, and Ocurblethan, in the diocese of Cork. According to the Taxations of A.D. 1302, 1307, as given by Sweetman, the deanery of Olethan comprised the barony of Kinnatalloon, and the Cloyne part of the barony of Barrymore, exclusive of the Great Island and the parish of Mogeesha, which went with Imokilly, till taken from the Hodnets by the Barries in A.D. 1329. The deanery of Muscry Donnegan comprised the barony of Orrery and Kilmore and the Cloyne part of the barony of Duhallow, except Kilshannig parish, which was then in Muskerrylin. The deanery of Ocurblethan comprised the Cork part of the barony of Barrymore and the North Liberties of Cork, except, perhaps, the parish of Currykippane." Rev. Barry goes on to posit that the name "Killyde" may derive from Killeagh (Irish: Cill Aedha), which lies in the parish of Dunbollogue in the old deanery of Ocurblethan. Ballybeg Priory, Buttevant  Descendants Philip married the daughter of Richard FitzTancred, castellan of Haverfordwest, and by her had four children: Robert (born circa 1160), William (born circa 1170), who succeeded to his cantreds, which were confirmed to him by King John I of England on 8 November 1207. By letters patent, John conferred on him the Lordships of Castlelyons and Buttevant in north Cork and Barry's Court in the civil parish of Carrigtwohill in southeast Cork. The family would eventually acquire the honours of Viscount Buttevant and Earl of Barrymore. William founded the priory of St. Thomas à Becket at Ballybeg for the Canons Regular of St. Augustine in 1229. His son, David Óg de Barry, enlarged the revenues of the priory in 1251. His heir was David "Mór" de Barry (born circa 1195), slain at the Battle of Callan in 1261. whose heir was David "Óg" de Barry, Justiciar of Ireland in 1267, and died in 1278. Gerald (born circa 1175), who succeeded his uncle Geraldus Cambrensis as Archdeacon of Brecon in 1203; and a daughter, who married Walter Mancenell. According to the "Archdall's Lodge" (1789) source, Robert de Barry, "after his services in Ireland is said to seat himself at Sevington, in Kent," and "about the year 1185 being killed at Lismore,". But as he was elder than his brother Gerald, who was born in 1146 or 1147, this Robert was about forty years old in 1185. The same source reports that the Robert who was slain near Lismore in that year was only an adolescens, that is between fifteen and twenty eight years of age. It is improbable therefore that Robert (aged over 40) was slain at Lismore. That person is more likely to be Philip's son, also called Robert. 1.^ Expugnatio Hibernica by Giraldus Cambrensis; Book 2, Chapter 20, v94 2.^ Burke's Irish Family Records, 1976 3.^ Expugnatio Hibernica by Giraldus Cambrensis; A B Scott & F X Martin, editors; Dublin 1978 edition; historical introduction page xxi 4.^ Expugnatio Hibernica by Giraldus Cambrensis; Book 1 Chapter 42 5.^ Expugnatio Hibernica by Giraldus Cambrensis; Book 2, Chapter 20, v94 6.^ "Giraldus Cambrensis" v., 350, 351, Rolls edit. 7.^ Smith, "History of Cork", Book 1, chapter i. 8.^ Egerton MS., 75 B. M., as quoted in W. A. Copinger's "Historical Notes to Smith's History of Cork," book ii., chapter 2. 9.^ Smith,"History of Cork ", p.370. 10.^ Rev. E. BARRY, "Barrymore : records of the Barrys of County Cork from the earliest to the present time, with pedigrees", Cork, 1902. 11.^ Burke's Irish Family Records, 1976 12.^ Rev. E. BARRY, "Barrymore : records of the Barrys of County Cork from the earliest to the present time, with pedigrees", Cork, 1902, pg 17 13.^ Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. LXVI, No. 204; July–December 1961; pages 105-116 ...more about Philip De Barry