Reginald Joseph Carruthers (1895 - 1946)

ADVERTISEMENT BY ANCESTRY.COM

Summary

Reginald Joseph Carruthers’s biography is built and maintained by people like you. Create an online profile of Reginald so that his life is remembered forever. If any factual information is incorrect, please edit Reginald’s biography.

Reginald Joseph Carruthers Biography & Family History

This genealogy profile is dedicated to the life and ancestry of Reginald Joseph Carruthers and his immediate Carruthers family. Add to Reginald Joseph Carruthers's genealogy page to share your memories & historical research with his family and other genealogy hobbyists.

Birth

Death


Ascot V, Australia

Cause of death

There is no cause of death listed for Reginald.

Burial / Funeral

Do you know the final resting place - gravesite in a cemetery or location of cremation - of Reginald Joseph Carruthers? Add burial and funeral information.

Obituary

Last Known Residence

Ascot V, Australia

Average Age

Life Expectancy

Family

Father: Carruthers Joseph Swan Carruthers
Mother: Helen Wood Carruthers

Education

Did Reginald finish grade school, get a GED, go to high school, get a college degree or masters? What schools or universities did Reginald attend? Add education.

Professions

Share what Reginald did for a living or if he had a career or profession. Add Profession.

Military Service

It is unknown if Reginald Joseph Carruthers is a military veteran.

Middle name

Joseph

Surnames

Ethnicity

Unknown. Add Reginald's ethnicity.

Nationality

Unknown. Add Reginald's nationality.

Religion

Unknown. Was Reginald a religious man? Add Reginald’s religion

Gender

Male

Family Photos

Pictures really do say a thousand words. Add photos of Reginald during various points of his life.

Timeline

1895 - In the year that Reginald Joseph Carruthers was born, on September 3rd, in Latrobe, PA, the first professional football game was played. The game was between the Latrobe YMCA and the Jeannette Athletic Club. Latrobe won 12 - 0.

1926 - He was 31 years old when on October 31st, Harry Houdini died in Michigan. Houdini was the most famed magician of his time and perhaps of all time, especially for his acts involving escapes - from handcuffs, straitjackets, chains, ropes slung from skyscrapers, and more. He was president of the Society of American Magicians and stringently upheld professional ethics. He died of complications from a ruptured appendix. Although he had received a blow to the area a couple of days previously, the connection between the blow and his appendicitis is disputed.

1931 - By the time he was 36 years old, in March, “The Star Spangled Banner” officially became the national anthem by congressional resolution. Other songs had previously been used - among them, "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", "God Bless America", and "America the Beautiful". There was fierce debate about making "The Star Spangled Banner" the national anthem - Southerners and veterans organizations supported it, pacifists and educators opposed it.

1933 - He was 38 years old when on March 4th, Franklin Delano Roosevelt became the 32nd President of the United States. He was elected four times (equaled by no other President) and guided the United States through the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War 2. His wife was his cousin Eleanor Roosevelt (Teddy Roosevelt's niece) who President Truman called "First Lady of the World". Some of the major programs that survive from his presidency are the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act (The National Labor Relations Act of 1935) , the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.

1946 - In the year of Reginald Joseph Carruthers's passing, on July 4th, the Philippines gained independence from the United States. In 1964, Independence Day in the Philippines was moved from July 4th to June 12th at the insistence of nationalists and historians.

Reginald Joseph Carruthers Family Tree

Who was Reginald’s parents? Did he get married and did they have children? Share Reginald’s family tree to share his legacy and genealogy pedigree.

You can add or remove people from Reginald's family tree by clicking here.

Obituary

This obit of Reginald Joseph Carruthers is updated by the community. Edit this biography to contribute to his obituary. Include details such as cemetery, burial, newspaper obituary and grave or marker inscription if available.

Reginald Joseph Carruthers passed away in 1946 in Ascot V, Australia at 51 years old. There is no known cause of death for Reginald. He was born in 1895. He was born to Carruthers Joseph Swan Carruthers and Helen Wood Carruthers, and we currently have no other siblings in his family tree.

Memories

What do you remember about Reginald Joseph Carruthers? Share your memories of special moments and stories you have heard about him. Or just leave a comment to show the world that Reginald is remembered.

Write a comment

Other Records of Reginald Joseph Carruthers

ADVERTISEMENT BY ANCESTRY.COM

Other Biographies

Other Reginald Carrutherses

Sources

Session

View session

Bot? yes
Not logged in. (Login modal)
IP 54.224.118.247 United States (US) change

User Agent: CCBot/2.0 (https://commoncrawl.org/faq/)

Mobile device? No

Environment

Environment: Production (live data)
Server: web5-1
Site: us
Cache default: memcache

Clear typeahead

$_COOKIE · $_SERVER

Active Splits

You can change your experiment groups as an admin/developer, and they will persist even if you switch to a regular user account.

Ancestry/MyHeritage: Mobile
split
Ancestry/MyHeritage: Surname
split
Affiliates
split
Archives/Ancestry
split
Requests 0.157063 s
4,459.2969 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
"person/reginald-joseph-carruthers/143960041" (1)
0.104779 s
0.104779 s
0.104779 s
0.104779 s
3,149.8438 kB
3,149.8438 kB
3,149.8438 kB
3,149.8438 kB
"api/person/143960041" « "person/reginald-joseph-carruthers/143960041" (1)
0.004295 s
0.004295 s
0.004295 s
0.004295 s
468.1328 kB
468.1328 kB
468.1328 kB
468.1328 kB
"api/surname/carruthers" « "person/reginald-joseph-carruthers/143960041" (1)
0.006333 s
0.006333 s
0.006333 s
0.006333 s
220.3594 kB
220.3594 kB
220.3594 kB
220.3594 kB
"api/photo/364751" « "api/surname/carruthers" (1)
0.001380 s
0.001380 s
0.001380 s
0.001380 s
91.9375 kB
91.9375 kB
91.9375 kB
91.9375 kB
"api/person/143960041/photos" « "person/reginald-joseph-carruthers/143960041" (1)
0.002551 s
0.002551 s
0.002551 s
0.002551 s
39.2500 kB
39.2500 kB
39.2500 kB
39.2500 kB
"api/photos" « "api/person/143960041/photos" (1)
0.001269 s
0.001269 s
0.001269 s
0.001269 s
34.0859 kB
34.0859 kB
34.0859 kB
34.0859 kB
"api/discussion/person/143960041" « "person/reginald-joseph-carruthers/143960041" (1)
0.001235 s
0.001235 s
0.001235 s
0.001235 s
40.8906 kB
40.8906 kB
40.8906 kB
40.8906 kB
"api/users" « "api/discussion/person/143960041" (1)
0.000242 s
0.000242 s
0.000242 s
0.000242 s
20.6094 kB
20.6094 kB
20.6094 kB
20.6094 kB
"api/people" « "person/reginald-joseph-carruthers/143960041" (2)
0.002710 s
0.029413 s
0.016061 s
0.032123 s
41.8047 kB
310.5078 kB
176.1563 kB
352.3125 kB
"api/person/143960041/surnames" « "person/reginald-joseph-carruthers/143960041" (1)
0.003141 s
0.003141 s
0.003141 s
0.003141 s
35.7656 kB
35.7656 kB
35.7656 kB
35.7656 kB
"api/historicalevents" « "person/reginald-joseph-carruthers/143960041" (1)
0.000884 s
0.000884 s
0.000884 s
0.000884 s
33.7578 kB
33.7578 kB
33.7578 kB
33.7578 kB
Afapi 0.050915 s
1,110.6406 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
GET person/143960041 (1)
0.003882 s
0.003882 s
0.003882 s
0.003882 s
408.8984 kB
408.8984 kB
408.8984 kB
408.8984 kB
GET surname/carruthers (1)
0.006118 s
0.006118 s
0.006118 s
0.006118 s
198.3281 kB
198.3281 kB
198.3281 kB
198.3281 kB
GET photo/364751 (1)
0.001095 s
0.001095 s
0.001095 s
0.001095 s
66.4297 kB
66.4297 kB
66.4297 kB
66.4297 kB
GET person/143960041/photos (1)
0.002393 s
0.002393 s
0.002393 s
0.002393 s
32.7656 kB
32.7656 kB
32.7656 kB
32.7656 kB
GET photos (1)
0.001002 s
0.001002 s
0.001002 s
0.001002 s
8.1797 kB
8.1797 kB
8.1797 kB
8.1797 kB
GET discussion/person/143960041 (1)
0.001033 s
0.001033 s
0.001033 s
0.001033 s
22.2578 kB
22.2578 kB
22.2578 kB
22.2578 kB
GET users (1)
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
2.2656 kB
2.2656 kB
2.2656 kB
2.2656 kB
GET people (2)
0.002481 s
0.029247 s
0.015864 s
0.031728 s
21.8672 kB
304.0781 kB
162.9727 kB
325.9453 kB
GET person/143960041/surnames (1)
0.002971 s
0.002971 s
0.002971 s
0.002971 s
29.2813 kB
29.2813 kB
29.2813 kB
29.2813 kB
GET historicalevents (1)
0.000674 s
0.000674 s
0.000674 s
0.000674 s
16.2891 kB
16.2891 kB
16.2891 kB
16.2891 kB
Database (connect) 0.000566 s
0.8125 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
Set "" (1)
0.000566 s
0.000566 s
0.000566 s
0.000566 s
0.8125 kB
0.8125 kB
0.8125 kB
0.8125 kB
Database (default) 0.044241 s
16.7344 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
SELECT * FROM "person" WHERE "id" = '143960041' -- simplemodel person (3)
0.000574 s
0.001320 s
0.000829 s
0.002487 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
2.1094 kB
SELECT "id" FROM "surname" WHERE "safename" = 'carruthers' -- simplemodel::_pkey_lookup surname (2)
0.000436 s
0.000534 s
0.000485 s
0.000970 s
0.7031 kB
0.7656 kB
0.7344 kB
1.4688 kB
SELECT * FROM "surname" WHERE "id" = '9623' -- simplemodel surname (1)
0.000567 s
0.000567 s
0.000567 s
0.000567 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "photo"."id" FROM "photo_surname" INNER JOIN "photo" ON ("photo_surname"."photo_id" = "photo"."id") WHERE "photo_surname"."surname_id" = '9623' AND "photo"."status_id" = 1 ORDER BY "photo"."id" ASC LIMIT 1 (1)
0.001410 s
0.001410 s
0.001410 s
0.001410 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT * FROM "photo" WHERE "id" = '364751' -- simplemodel photo (1)
0.000607 s
0.000607 s
0.000607 s
0.000607 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT * FROM "name" WHERE "id" = '9905376' -- simplemodel name (2)
0.000489 s
0.003064 s
0.001776 s
0.003553 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
1.4063 kB
SELECT "photo".* FROM "photo" JOIN "photo_person" AS "p" ON ("photo"."id" = "p"."photo_id") WHERE "photo"."status_id" = 1 AND "p"."person_id" = '143960041' ORDER BY "photo"."id" DESC LIMIT 15 (1)
0.000793 s
0.000793 s
0.000793 s
0.000793 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT * FROM "discussion_post" WHERE "thread_id" = 'person/143960041' AND "status_id" = 1 (1)
0.000583 s
0.000583 s
0.000583 s
0.000583 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "relationship".* FROM "relationship_person" JOIN "relationship" ON ("relationship_person"."relationship_id" = "relationship"."id") WHERE "relationship_person"."person_id" = '143960041' (1)
0.003339 s
0.003339 s
0.003339 s
0.003339 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT * FROM "relationship_person" WHERE "relationship_id" IN (11031943) (1)
0.001596 s
0.001596 s
0.001596 s
0.001596 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "id", "name", "first_name", "gender", "date_death", "status_id" FROM "person" WHERE "id" IN ('143960041', '143960042', '143960043') (1)
0.001132 s
0.001132 s
0.001132 s
0.001132 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "source_id", "ref_key" FROM "person_source" WHERE "person_id" = '143960041' -- Source::person() (1)
0.001572 s
0.001572 s
0.001572 s
0.001572 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "id" FROM "person" WHERE "name_id" = '9905376' AND "id" > '143960041' AND "status_id" = 1 ORDER BY "id" DESC LIMIT 20 -- bio: other people by name (1)
0.001798 s
0.001798 s
0.001798 s
0.001798 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "person_id" FROM "surname_person" WHERE "surname_id" = '9623' AND "person_id" > '143960041' ORDER BY "person_id" ASC LIMIT 20 -- bio: other people by surname (1)
0.009313 s
0.009313 s
0.009313 s
0.009313 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "id" FROM "person" WHERE "id" > '143960041' AND "status_id" = 1 ORDER BY "id" ASC LIMIT 20 -- bio: other people by id (1)
0.003047 s
0.003047 s
0.003047 s
0.003047 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "id", "name", "date_birth", "date_death", "location_birth", "location_current", "location_death", "status_id" FROM "person" WHERE "id" IN ('163774445', '143960042', '143960043', '143990439', '143990440', '143990441', '144038754', '144038755', '144038756', '144073603', '144073604', '144073605', '144086972', '144086973', '144086974', '144114289', '144117820', '144117821', '144117822', '144140891', '144140892', '143960042', '143960043', '143960044', '143960045', '143960046', '143960047', '143960048', '143960049', '143960050', '143960051', '143960052', '143960053', '143960054', '143960055', '143960056', '143960057', '143960058', '143960059', '143960060', '143960061') (1)
0.009741 s
0.009741 s
0.009741 s
0.009741 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "year" FROM "historical_event" ORDER BY "year" ASC LIMIT 1 (1)
0.000647 s
0.000647 s
0.000647 s
0.000647 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
SELECT "year" FROM "historical_event" ORDER BY "year" DESC LIMIT 1 (1)
0.000534 s
0.000534 s
0.000534 s
0.000534 s
1.2031 kB
1.2031 kB
1.2031 kB
1.2031 kB
SELECT * FROM "historical_event" WHERE "id" IN ('746', '156', '170', '174', '225') ORDER BY "year" ASC (1)
0.000552 s
0.000552 s
0.000552 s
0.000552 s
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
0.7031 kB
Afapi::after 0.000275 s
31.3984 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
GET person/143960041 (1)
0.000077 s
0.000077 s
0.000077 s
0.000077 s
11.6563 kB
11.6563 kB
11.6563 kB
11.6563 kB
GET photo/364751 (1)
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
2.0859 kB
2.0859 kB
2.0859 kB
2.0859 kB
GET surname/carruthers (1)
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
1.9609 kB
1.9609 kB
1.9609 kB
1.9609 kB
GET photos (1)
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
1.9688 kB
1.9688 kB
1.9688 kB
1.9688 kB
GET person/143960041/photos (1)
0.000017 s
0.000017 s
0.000017 s
0.000017 s
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
GET users (1)
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
0.000019 s
1.9688 kB
1.9688 kB
1.9688 kB
1.9688 kB
GET discussion/person/143960041 (1)
0.000017 s
0.000017 s
0.000017 s
0.000017 s
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
GET people (2)
0.000020 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000041 s
1.9688 kB
1.9688 kB
1.9688 kB
3.9375 kB
GET person/143960041/surnames (1)
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
1.9531 kB
GET historicalevents (1)
0.000022 s
0.000022 s
0.000022 s
0.000022 s
1.9609 kB
1.9609 kB
1.9609 kB
1.9609 kB
Cache (memcache) 0.005351 s
286.9688 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
Get "surname_9623 v18-1" (2)
0.000315 s
0.001018 s
0.000666 s
0.001333 s
5.6953 kB
34.8438 kB
20.2695 kB
40.5391 kB
Set "surname_9623 v18-1" for 0s (1)
0.000323 s
0.000323 s
0.000323 s
0.000323 s
1.4609 kB
1.4609 kB
1.4609 kB
1.4609 kB
Get "AFAPI_Controller_Person::related_surnames(143960041) surname_list 2013-09-03 13:01:08" (1)
0.000301 s
0.000301 s
0.000301 s
0.000301 s
0.3828 kB
0.3828 kB
0.3828 kB
0.3828 kB
Set "AFAPI_Controller_Person::related_surnames(143960041) surname_list 2013-09-03 13:01:08" for 86400s (1)
0.000335 s
0.000335 s
0.000335 s
0.000335 s
0.6953 kB
0.6953 kB
0.6953 kB
0.6953 kB
Get "source::person(143960041)" (1)
0.000277 s
0.000277 s
0.000277 s
0.000277 s
0.4453 kB
0.4453 kB
0.4453 kB
0.4453 kB
Set "source::person(143960041)" for 3600s (1)
0.000276 s
0.000276 s
0.000276 s
0.000276 s
0.4297 kB
0.4297 kB
0.4297 kB
0.4297 kB
Get "Source::_sources_from_cache v3" (1)
0.000417 s
0.000417 s
0.000417 s
0.000417 s
41.6719 kB
41.6719 kB
41.6719 kB
41.6719 kB
Get "surname_stats_9623 v3-1" (1)
0.000340 s
0.000340 s
0.000340 s
0.000340 s
5.9688 kB
5.9688 kB
5.9688 kB
5.9688 kB
Get "assets_manifest" (1)
0.001056 s
0.001056 s
0.001056 s
0.001056 s
172.8906 kB
172.8906 kB
172.8906 kB
172.8906 kB
Get "geolocator.lookup.54.224.118.247" (1)
0.000291 s
0.000291 s
0.000291 s
0.000291 s
1.1250 kB
1.1250 kB
1.1250 kB
1.1250 kB
Get "experiments.10" (1)
0.000402 s
0.000402 s
0.000402 s
0.000402 s
21.3594 kB
21.3594 kB
21.3594 kB
21.3594 kB
Get api/photos 0.000892 s
2.3750 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
db query (1)
0.000887 s
0.000887 s
0.000887 s
0.000887 s
1.9453 kB
1.9453 kB
1.9453 kB
1.9453 kB
to reps (1)
0.000005 s
0.000005 s
0.000005 s
0.000005 s
0.4297 kB
0.4297 kB
0.4297 kB
0.4297 kB
Autorender 0.018342 s
1,144.4219 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
site/person/index (1)
0.021493 s
0.021493 s
0.021493 s
0.021493 s
1,210.6484 kB
1,210.6484 kB
1,210.6484 kB
1,210.6484 kB
View::render 0.015734 s
428.8516 kB
Benchmark Min Max Average Total
private/application/views/templates/shared/google_analytics.php (1)
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.000021 s
0.8516 kB
0.8516 kB
0.8516 kB
0.8516 kB
private/application/views/site/ads/dfp.php (9)
0.000021 s
0.000042 s
0.000030 s
0.000267 s
0.6563 kB
0.7969 kB
0.6771 kB
6.0938 kB
private/modules/clientmessage/views/clientmessage/html.php (1)
0.000013 s
0.000013 s
0.000013 s
0.000013 s
0.7656 kB
0.7656 kB
0.7656 kB
0.7656 kB
private/application/views/site/person/index/description-text.php (1)
0.000277 s
0.000277 s
0.000277 s
0.000277 s
3.8203 kB
3.8203 kB
3.8203 kB
3.8203 kB
private/application/views/site/ads/affiliates/person/records-list.php (2)
0.000178 s
0.000564 s
0.000371 s
0.000742 s
3.2891 kB
10.8516 kB
7.0703 kB
14.1406 kB
private/application/views/site/ads/affiliates/person/records-inline.php (2)
0.000014 s
0.000022 s
0.000018 s
0.000036 s
0.5703 kB
0.7344 kB
0.6523 kB
1.3047 kB
private/application/views/shared/familytree/relationships.php (1)
0.000333 s
0.000333 s
0.000333 s
0.000333 s
11.6797 kB
11.6797 kB
11.6797 kB
11.6797 kB
private/application/views/shared/familytree/parents.php (1)
0.000287 s
0.000287 s
0.000287 s
0.000287 s
10.3203 kB
10.3203 kB
10.3203 kB
10.3203 kB
private/application/views/shared/familytree/person.php (3)
0.000024 s
0.000037 s
0.000029 s
0.000088 s
0.9922 kB
1.1719 kB
1.1068 kB
3.3203 kB
private/application/views/shared/familytree/person-mobile.php (2)
0.000013 s
0.000032 s
0.000022 s
0.000045 s
0.6953 kB
0.8750 kB
0.7852 kB
1.5703 kB
private/modules/afapi/views/afapi/discussion/form-row.php (1)
0.000367 s
0.000367 s
0.000367 s
0.000367 s
4.0547 kB
4.0547 kB
4.0547 kB
4.0547 kB
private/modules/afapi/views/afapi/discussion/form.php (1)
0.000016 s
0.000016 s
0.000016 s
0.000016 s
1.0703 kB
1.0703 kB
1.0703 kB
1.0703 kB
private/modules/afapi/views/afapi/discussion/posts.php (1)
0.000022 s
0.000022 s
0.000022 s
0.000022 s
0.7188 kB
0.7188 kB
0.7188 kB
0.7188 kB
private/application/views/site/ads/ancestry/surname-widget.php (1)
0.000047 s
0.000047 s
0.000047 s
0.000047 s
1.2031 kB
1.2031 kB
1.2031 kB
1.2031 kB
private/application/views/site/shared/social_links.php (1)
0.000015 s
0.000015 s
0.000015 s
0.000015 s
1.2109 kB
1.2109 kB
1.2109 kB
1.2109 kB
private/application/views/dev/panel.php (1)
0.010445 s
0.010445 s
0.010445 s
0.010445 s
297.6719 kB
297.6719 kB
297.6719 kB
297.6719 kB
private/application/views/dev/panel/session.php (1)
0.005336 s
0.005336 s
0.005336 s
0.005336 s
19.5234 kB
19.5234 kB
19.5234 kB
19.5234 kB
private/application/views/dev/panel/experiments.php (1)
0.000103 s
0.000103 s
0.000103 s
0.000103 s
4.6563 kB
4.6563 kB
4.6563 kB
4.6563 kB
private/system/views/profiler/stats.php (1)
0.004517 s
0.004517 s
0.004517 s
0.004517 s
218.3125 kB
218.3125 kB
218.3125 kB
218.3125 kB
Application Execution (973) 0.030866 s 3.197528 s 0.140256 s 0.110954 s
2,063.7969 kB 19,001.0000 kB 3,849.7593 kB 4,003.1250 kB

Refresh Hearts Stats

This refresh heart stats for the day

Registration Tracking

Referrer
Int. Referrer (auth):
People viewed (1): 143960041 clear
Surnames viewed (0): clear