Susan Pombrio

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Susan Pombrio Brault-The Journey by Lynette Baker Dow My ancestors are of French origin. The story of their struggle to have a better life for themselves and their children is the basis of this family history. Originally published in Lifelines Volume 12, Number 1-Whole Number 22, 1995. French Origins To secure a foothold in the fishing and fur trades the French kings enlisted some of their seaport merchants for assistance. The agreement consisted of a promise to secure a permanent settlement in exchange for a monopoly on the fish trade. Unfortunately, the merchants did not provide the colonists with enough supplies and so forced these stouthearted people to become self sufficient quickly. The two regions the French found most compelling were the peninsula and land surrounding the territory called Acadia, and the St. Lawrence Valley, known as Canada. Sigurd de Monts and Samuel de Champlain started the first settlement in 1604. LaRochelle, in France, primarily backed the settlement of Port Royal, Acadia (today Annapolis Royal) in 1613. The French who settled Acadia quickly developed a new Acadian culture that was unique in many ways. Historical and political events shaped the Acadian's features changed forever individual family groups. Although Acadians found life very difficult during the period after France lost control and England took control. The difficulties and forced change made strong people who responded positively in the face of insurmountable odds (1). As early as 1613, the friction between the French and English took form when under the English Port Royal was raided, which was commenced by Captain Samuel Argall of Virginia. Attempts at reorganization of Port Royal in the 1620s failed because monetary resources were not available. Struggles for power in Acadia took place during 1627 and 1632 between groups of English and French baronets. Louis XIII commissioned Charles de la Tour to be Lieutenant General of Acadia on February 11, 1631. In May of 1632 Isaac de Raizlly became governor of Acadia and brought along Seigneur d'Aulnay Charnisy as his lieutenant. However, when de Raizlly died in 1636 a rivalry developed between d'Aulnay and Charles de la Tour. In 1651 la Tour secured a patent as Governor and Lieutenant Governor of Acadia. Most French came to New France by means of recruitment. Merchants and entrepreneurs intended to recruit skilled workers, but most of the people who embarked for Acadia turned out to be apprentices or peasants. Upon fulfillment of the contract between intendant and worker, most of the so called artisans became traders or habitants. Of the 1,200 military men sent by King Louis XIV to New France, some officers and men stayed, in Acadia, permanently. Many of the French came from Aunis, Angoumois, Poitou, and Saintonge, located in the central and western regions of France. My Brault ancestor is the subject of this history. Vincent Brault, the ancestor who emigrated to Acadia about 1650, came from La Chaussee (Vienne), located in central France in the northern part of Poitou, ten miles west of Lodun. Vincent was accompanied by his sister, Renee, and his brother-in-law, and other peasants from the La Chaussee area on this journey. Charles de Menou d'Aulnay, probably recruited them from lands he owned in and around La Chaussee. The relative isolation of the village of La Chaussee from any large city made Seigneur d'Aulnay a powerful man. As history testifies, d'Aulnay was the principal colonizer of Acadia. The Brault name is derived from Gaul-Germanic Beroaldus, and is a very old name borne by many French families in this area (2). The Brault's of LaChausse May have originated in an area called Brault near the village of Derce in Viennes. Le Chateau de Brault, is a stone country house that dates from the sixteenth century. In the mid 1600s the way to get from LaChausse to La Rochelle, took about a week by foot and was approximately 112 miles long. The most common route was a road that went by Poitres and Niort to La Rochelle, a town on the western side of Poitou on the Atlantic Ocean. It was a convenient place for Emmanuel Le Boegne, d'Aulnay's business agent, to live since La Rochelle monopolized shipping to Acadia during this time. Vincent Brault most likely took this route to La Rochelle where he became an engage, i. e., he signed a document before a notary, to work exclusively for an individual for a specified period of time. Many of these agreements still exist and undoubtedly the contract provided for passage to Acadia. Routinely the engage received half his wages in advance to buy clothes and tools before embarking on the trip to Acadia. Records show that hundreds of colonists, i. e., recruits, passed through La Rochelle, France on their way to Acadian ships. They usually set sail at Easter time to ensure a safe return well before winter. While many surely dreamed of a better life in Acadia, the passage on board the ship took its toll on everyone. Often passengers waited in port for weeks before setting sail. Once underway the voyage usually lasted about two months. As no passenger ships existed in the seventeenth century, square-rigged galleons or pinnaces made the trips to the colony. Noblemen and clergy fared better on board, in the captain's quarters, than the colonist. The colonists slept with the animals in tight, confined space where sickness such as dysentery, yellow fever, scurvy, and sea sickness plagued them. Piracy was always a great risk on the sea. In times of war, being taken a prisoner by the enemy was, also, a threat. Routinely ships left La Rochelle traveled north-west along the French coast, where at Brittany, they headed west for Newfoundland's Grand Bank. Acadian Life Port Royal at the Bay of Fundy was an early settlement of the French. Later, during the reign of Queen Anne, the British renamed the town Annapolis Royal after her. In 1650, approximately 300 French people lived in and around Port Royal. About half of these numbers consisted of families. The seigneurial, or French feudal ownership of land, came to the colony as well. A seigneur is a title of distinction frequently of nobility, very often presupposing ownership of land and certain fiscal, judicial and political authority. The implication of kinship, patronage, and service binding one man to another extended into the roturier class. A peasant who was a copy holder or tenant-farmer was to some extent regarded as the vassal of his seigneur (3). Many colonists owned land through d'Aulnay, they paid dues and owed duties to him. There is a good chance that Vincent Brault, as an engage, farmed the land owned by d'Aulnay. In Acadia, d'Aulnay's chief rival, Charles de la Tour, dropped out of sight in 1645, and d'Aulnay, himself, died in a canoeing accident in 1650. In 1654 the English seized control of Acadia under Oliver Cromwell, which they held until 1670. The French, in a series of moves, fled away from the English by going further up the river. However, the Treaty of Breda in 1667, restored Acadia to France and by 1670, the French controlled the colony once again. The census of 1671, revealed that the Acadian population totaled 500 people. Vincent Brault, age 40, had a family consisting of a wife, Marie Borg, age 25, and their four children: Marie, age nine; Antoine, age five; Marguerite, age three; Pierre, age one; nine head of cattle, seven sheep, and four arpents of plowed land. Vincent Brault died in 1686 at the age of fifty-five years. Marie Bourg, his widow, stayed in Port Royal with her son Jean Brault, born in 1675. According to the census of 1714, they still lived in the vicinity of Port Royal. Marie Bourg, died at the age of 86 on September 19, 1730. Eventually, along the Annapolis River small villages, largely made up of families, flourished. The Acadians hunted, gathered berries, fished, and farmed the land. They used salt to preserve meat and fish for use during the winter. Bark canoes comprised the most popular form of travel, and most learned to manage one skillfully. About 1670, when the French regained control of Acadia, some young Port Royal settlers decided to make a fresh start. They migrated up the Bay of Fundy to the Chignecto and Minus Bay area. In 1707, 580 people resided in these areas. The settlers planted oats, wheat, peas, and other vegetables in the tidal marshland and apple orchards in the countryside. The Acadians also, took part in trade with New England merchants. The merchants traveled up the Bay of Fundy seeking to barter tools, textiles, sugar, and spices for Acadian furs, fish, surplus grain, and livestock. In 1701, Vincent Brault's sons joined the earliest settlements in these areas. My ancestor Francois Brault, born in 1674 at Port Royal, moved with his brothers, to Rivere-aux-Canards near Grand Pre. In those days, it was common to see closely grouped farms with the same family name villages. In 1755, the Villages des Brault, at Rivber-aux-Canards, included twenty different families. Nearly all Acadians farmed the lands. The tidal marshes were remarkably fertile. Acadians drained the tidal marshes, because the tide (could surge to 46 feet) often covered the land in the Minas Bay and the Bay of Fundy. The Acadians reclaimed the land by building dikes at low tide. Deep clumps of turf comprised the dikes. These clumps were banks of overturned turf about five feet high and ten feet wide at the base, and tapering to one or two feet wide at the top, efficiently stopping tidal waters. Grass grew over the top of the low causeway. Sluices cut into the wall to channel the water, and were fitted with clapper valve gates. They permitted in fresh water from streams and rainfall, but prevented sea water from seeping back in at high tide (4). However, it took rainfalls of up to two or three years to wash away the remains of the salt water. The Acadians were clannish. More often than not, married sons lived in their parent's houses. Respect for elders, especially parents, played an important role in Acadian society. Families living in a proximity to each other, often banded together to do work for the family as a unit. Acadian hospitality, and deference to parent's religious devotion portrays the deeply rooted virtues of the Acadians. Somehow after doing my research I more fully understand my ethnic roots. Grand Pre population grew rapidly between 1686 and 1714. It grew from 57 persons to 1,000 in only 28 years. Therefore, new arrivals settled further up the Minus Basin in two parishes called L'Assumption (now Windsor) and Saint-Famille (now Falmouth). The Braults settled in these new areas. By 1700, an entirely new set of traditions developed separately from the original French settlers that were now Acadian. When no priest was available the oldest member that could be found celebrated a "White Mass," that is, led the group in religious services. Normally, Acadians built their homes of logs filled with clay. These simple houses became popular by the uncertainty of the times. In the event the Acadians had to leave the enemy could find nothing of value left behind. When their enemies appeared, the settlers fled to the woods with their few belongings and their cattle. As there were no road to speak of, the waterways were the chief mode of transportation among the Acadians. The early Acadians were very successful at fishing, hunting, lumbering, and live stock breeding. The Acadians being so resourceful and successful at the salting of fish and meat, were able to send surpluses regularly to France. The Acadians tanned their own leather, made their own soap, furniture, and spun their own clothing using wither wool or flax. When spring arrived the maple sap ran freely, and the Acadians gathered it and boiled it into syrup. They also enjoyed spruce beer. Still, they relied on outsiders for goods such as metal for bars, guns, ammunition, and salt needed for fur trading with the Indians. In 1701 the first school opened its doors in Port Royal under the direction of Sister Chausson, a French nun. Long before the school opened French missionaries taught the Acadian youth. Through 1714, French secular priest organized education for the children. Important church feast days were celebrated with processions and hymns. The Acadians were happy self-reliant people of Gallic background. They always clung to the nature of the French, living more day to day than thinking about the future. It is said that Acadians enjoyed "violent horse racing," and adventurous fishing expeditions. Among the virtues of the Acadians were courage, being practical, thrifty, sober, healthy, hospitable, interested in social equality, marital fidelity, religious piety, and cheerfulness. During the long winters, the tradition of many old French songs and dances were kept alive with there frequent use by the Acadians. Acadian descendants still enjoy these traditions today. Acadian Deportation Seventeen-ten, marks the moment of decline of French power in North America. That year Port Royal fell and shortly afterward the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 recognized British sovereignty over most of the territory known today as Nova Scotia. However, the area of Cape Breton Island remained a French possession, also the territory later known as New Brunswick and Maine. Under these circumstances the French urged the Acadians to migrate to Cape Breton, but few persons took this advice. Giving up a stable life for one of uncertainty did not appeal to the Acadians. The struggle for power in Acadia between the French and English manifested itself in raids by French upon English settlements and shipping. Through these disputes Acadians tried to remain neutral. The English in Nova Scotia recognized representatives of the Acadians. Notaries and deputies played an important role by representing acadian interests. Matters grew increasingly complicated by French plans to build a high fortress city on the western part of Cape Breton, named Louisbourg. Construction of Louisbourg began in 1720. It was important to the French strategically. It was at the entrance to the Cabot Strait, the establishment of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River. Therefore, Louisbourg became a symbol of French power in North America. For twenty years France poured vast sums of money into building the most advanced military fortress to protect French interests in North America. Inevitably, the English in Nova Scotia requested the Acadians to take an Oath of Allegiance to the English Crown. Their efforts were largely unsuccessful, as the Acadians would not raise a hand against France. In 1745, invaders from New England, consisting of over five thousands troops, attacked and captured Louisbourg. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, returned control of Louisbourg to France, but peace did not last. Hostilities began again in 1754 with the French and Indian War. British forces came from Massachusetts and Nova Scotia to invade and capture French outposts in the Chignecto Isthmus (Note: This isthmus borders the Maritime provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia which connects the Nova Scotia peninsula with North America.), namely Fort Beausejour and Fort Gaspereau. The British considered the newly built French outposts to be located on British land. The British intended to isolate Louisbourg from Quebec, as the French forts encircling British strongholds were proving to be a threat to them. Problems began for the Acadians when they said they would take an Oath of Allegiance to the King of England. The French, of Acadia, said they would take the oath under the condition that they would never take up arms against France. The Acadians said that if forced to take an unqualified oath they would voluntarily leave their homeland rather than fight against France. The Acadians who stayed in Nova Scotia persevered to the end refusing to take the unqualified oath of allegiance to the English King. It all began on July 16, 1755, when the inhabitants of Annapolis Royal (formerly Port Royal) met and drafted their answer to Charles Lawrence, Governor of Nova Scotia. Upon receipt of the Acadians refusal to take the oath, Lawrence told the Council that the Acadians would no longer be subjects of Britain, as they had been since 1710. The English had tolerated the Acadian position for twenty-five years, because they were dependent on the Acadians for food. Fear that the Acadians would join the French forces at Louisbourg led the British to declare deportation of the Acadians. On July 28, 1755, on Governor Lawrence's orders and under Lieut. Col. Winslow's command, Massachusett's volunteers executed Lawrence's orders of deportation. Approximately 9,500 Acadians inhabited the territory at that time. The deportation was called Le Grand Derangement, or The Great Uprooting. The first round-up of Acadians took place at Fort Beausejour, followed by Annapolis Royal, Pisquid (Fort Edward), and Grand Pre. Lawrence gave the orders to Lieut. Col. Winslow, but kept them secret so that the inhabitants would not take their cattle and escape before deportation. At deportation, the English took all the Acadians livestock and grain to help pay for their passage to the English colonies. The ships filled with the Acadians, had several destinations, including: North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Connecticut. Lawrence was ruthless in removing the Acadians. He ordered Lt. Col. Winslow to deprive those who escaped deportation by burning all their property and possessions. Therefore, they had no means of substance in Acadia. Moreover, he told Murray, another of his men, that he should take whatever measures necessary if the Acadians put up a fight. On August 9, 1755, Acadians still inhabited Pointe Beausejour on the Isthmus of Chignecto. Lawrence ordered a meeting. Upon arrival all persons became prisoners and were put aboard ships, and not all peacefully. On August 26, 1755, Lt. de Boishebert, the French commander, with the help of a group of Indians made a surprise attack on two hundred English troops. They had been burning villages on the Peticodiac River. This episode enabled two hundred families to escape deportation. They fled to the St. John River, New Brunswick, and Quebec. The events at Grand Pre truly illustrates the brutal reality of the Acadians deportation. A proclamation by Gov. Lawrence said that all Acadians should attend a meeting, September 5, 1755, at the church in Grand Pre. When the meeting commenced Winslow took everyone prisoner. He told them they had to give up all their possessions except personal items that could be carried on board ship. The Acadians did not know the destination of the ships, more often than not families became divided. They boarded different ships and never saw each other again, because the ships had different destinations. The English deported Village des Brault from Grand pre on October 27, 1755, at Rivere-aux-Canards on the Minas Basin, was among those deported from Grand Pre. He had married Marguerite Bariault in 1745 at Grand Pre. About 6,000 Acadians left Acadia between 1749 and 1752 on their own volition. Conditions on the ships were intolerable, with overcrowding being one of the greatest problems. Many sick and elderly died during the voyage to the English colonies. The most traumatic event was leaving behind everything they had known. Many Acadians hid quantities of money and other effects that were of value to them. Often the English found these valuables and confiscated them. The Acadians were forced to leave homes, churches, land, and cemeteries that they had known for several generations. This tragic episode in history inspired the American writer Henry Wadsworth Longfellow to write the poem, Evangeline: A Tale of Acadia in 1847. It is the story of a maiden's thirty year search for her fiancé after the deportation in 1755. She finally finds him on his deathbed. The deportation of Alexis and Marguerite Brault along with many others in the family led them to Hingham, Massachusetts in 1755. Naturally, life in Protestant Massachusetts was far from idyllic for the Acadians. The townspeople disliked the responsibility thrust upon them. Often families had to move several times to find a home. Acadians found limited employment opportunities. Men and boys found work on farms, fishing, and as laborers. While the women and girls worked as spinners, weavers, and as servants. Some friendships developed between the English and the Acadians, but the many years of bitterness between the two adversaries inhibited many good relationships. Also, anti-Catholic sentiment made life very difficult for the Acadians. After the Treaty of Paris in 1764, the Acadians given the opportunity to move at their will, went the the French settlements of Quebec, Louisiana, or the Canadian Maritimes. Alexis Brault played an important role in obtaining permission for Acadians to migrate to Quebec. Alexis served as a member of a delegation chosen by the Massachusetts legislature sent to Quebec in March of 1766. There he obtained permission on April 28, 1766, from Gov. Murray allowing the Acadians to migrate to Quebec. The entire family except for their son, Firmin, who moved to Louisiana, migrated to L'Assumption, Quebec north of Montreal. Firmin went on to found Breaux-Bridge, LA. My ancestor, Charles Alexis Brault, son of Alexis was probably born in Hingham, MA about 1757. Three years later, in 1770, Alexis Brault and his family settled in L'Acadie until the migration to Clinton County in New York State. Another branch of the Brault family left on a ship from Pointe Beausejour for Halifax, but they never arrived. During a storm the ship sailed off course and landed on the Island of Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland. Once they arrived safely on the Island, none wanted to leave. Eventually this family migrated to the St. Lawrence Valley region. Migration to the United States Samuel de Champlain discovered and gave name to the north-south waterway, we still today, call Lake Champlain. Settlement of lands on the western shore, by other than Amerindians, was by the French-Canadians in areas around their forts, previous to 1755. There were some Yankee settlement prior to the American Revolution of 1776-81, but the major influx of Yankees came after the War when land grants were given by the new government to pay for the favors of war. French migration to Clinton County in northern New York is the result of geographical and historical events. Lake Champlain lies strategically between the Green Mountains in Vermont and the Adirondack Mountains in New York. The Indians called the Champlain Valley Canadiere Guarunte, meaning Gate to the Country. The Champlain Valley was the logical route of migration as Lake Champlain is connected to the Richelieu River, which flows into the St. Lawrence, on through Cabot Straight, and then to the Atlantic ocean. Geographical factors such as the extreme elevation of the Adirondacks to the southwest blocked traffic flowing in these directions. This extreme elevation sloping to the north-east created a very narrow lake plain. Point au Roche settled in 1733, was settled by French-Canadian soldiers and their families returning, victorious, from the American Revolution. They had manned for the famed Congress own Regiment. These soldiers and their families were outcasts in Canada because of their allegiance to the Americans during the Revolution, and as such could not go home. The new American government rewarded these faithful servants with land grants upon which to settle, in April of 1783. These tracts were called the Canadian and Nova Scotia Tract. One hundred thousand acres comprised the tract, running west of the village Plattsburgh, north to the Canadian border, and east to the lake. It included the present towns of Plattsburgh, Schuyler Falls, Saranac, Dannemora, Altona, Mooers, and Champlain. Surveyors measured the wildly forested lots of land assigned to each soldier. language was a barrier, as unfortunately, the surveyors did not speak French. Locating the surveyors, who were often in the wilderness doing their job, and then trying to communicate their needs was a frustrating experience for the French-Canadian settlers. Much of the land, given to the returning soldiers, was inaccessible wilderness, often looked upon by the owner as inhabitable. moreover, often the French soldiers had no money with which to pay for the services of the surveyor. Many of the French lots were not redeemable by the French for one reason or the other, or they were traded by the refugee-soldier for food and clothing. For all these reasons the French refugees were ripe to be targeted for exploitation. So many lost the rights to the land they had earned through their faithful, courageous, and steadfast efforts. For those refugees who did settle their lands, they brought their skills with them. They were lumberjacks, harness makers, shoemakers, blacksmiths, shipwrights, carpenters, and boatman. Although they were skilled, most could neither read nor write, and the language barrier, their French culture, and their Catholic faith made life in the Champlain Valley very difficult. They usually were forced to take lower pay than an American, and for the same work. Through all this, the church was their salvation. Beginning around 1840, the industrialization of Plattsburgh, Clinton County, New York began. This was the answer to the plight of many Canadians, who because of high birth rates, economic depression, and shrinking land resources were in desperate straits in their homeland. Thus began the movement of Canadians, among them many Acadians, to northern New York. Although from 1850 to 1880 economic growth had steadily increased, the number of skilled artisans had decreased. With the arrival of the industrialization the status of the craftsman had eroded away steadily. Therefore, those French-Canadians who has arrived unskilled, and learned a skill to elevate themselves economically lost in the end because mechanization took over most of the skilled artisans' workloads. The 1850 census of Plattsburgh, revealed that most of the French-Canadians owned nothing. There was no change in the tax rolls of 1886. Clearly the reasons why French-Canadians had not been nearly as successful as their Yankee neighbors was due to their ethnicity. Anglo perception of the French was one of resentment, language, religion, a different culture, different social mores (the French liked to drink, a habit thoroughly disliked by the Anglo) were all to be held against the French in their struggle to co-exist with the Anglos. Nativism to a high degree became the source of fear. Native born Americans, especially those old stock Yankees, felt increasing fear of the waves of immigrants flooding the American shores. Among the elite, the social Darwinist philosophy and economic ideology equated the poverty of the immigrant classes with their failure to embrace the capitalist doctrines of hard work and self-discipline. Although, these conclusions could logically be drawn by Yankees the reasons why French-Canadians did not assimilate the Yankee cultures are, no doubt, based upon their heritage over hundreds of years. Instilled over the course of several hundred years were their pre-industrial peasant values. Their clannishness and sense of family came first. Traditional society focused upon families living close to each other, depending on one another to survive. They worked together for the common good of the family. In rural surroundings raising oneself economically had become relatively easy to do. When the French migrated to Plattsburgh, the traditional way of life changed for the most part. Prejudice and suspicion took economic opportunity away from the French-Canadians. The Anglos paid low wages to the French and it was often only the less welcome jobs that were available to them. Through all of this, the Catholic Church served the people. They served them best by providing schools where French children could be given a bilingual education. This was unheard of in the Yankee common schools. Resentment continued, and little opportunity was given by the Anglos to the French. Some French Anglicized their names in order to get better jobs and have a better standard of living. But, throughout, the 19th and 20th centuries the French lived among themselves. They remained French in culture and tradition. Plattsburgh, as well I'm sure did other areas or cities that had a large concentration of French, had a section that is still called Little Canada. Alexis Brault's son, Alexis, born in 1805, probably at L'Acadie, PQ, had moved from L'Acadie to Laprairie by 1831. Sometime between 1850 and 1857, Alexis left Laprairie for Dannemora, New York (Editor's note: the Dannemora State Prison was built at this time period and he most likely worked on the construction of the prison). He had married Emilie Giroux on November 21, 1831, in Laprairie. The St. Peter's Church census of 1857 lists Alexis as 51 years old. The 1860 US census finds Alexis and family in Plattsburgh, New York. By 1900, the people of French descent were the majority of the total population in Northern New York. The Story Continues... It is safe to conclude that Alexis Brault farmed in Canada before moving to Plattsburgh, and moved because word had reached him that economic opportunities were better in the United States. Born April 10, 1871, my great-grandfather, Francois Alfred Brault, became quite successful in Plattsburgh. A Franco-American guide, written in 1925, states that Fred (short for Alfred) Brault was an entrepreneur. He, also, owned land and participated in elections. Fred and John B. Boissey started a contracting and building business in 1903. They also manufactured concrete building blocks. Boissey and Brault built the chapel portion of St. Peter's Church and the Ecole St. Pierre (boy's school--known as the green school) in 1906. Francois Alfred Brault married Roseanne Desmarais at St. Peter's Church September 23, 1893. My grandmother, Mary Grace Brault, came into this world, at home, on August 11, 1909, in Plattsburgh. she recalls her grandmother living in her house with her immediate family. Treatment and up bringing of boys and girls in her family was essentially equal. Her sister, Catherine, who lives in Arizona, and one of her brothers, played piano. All the children in her family attend D'Youville Academy (girl's school) and Ecole of St. Pierre (boy's school) at St. Peter's. Catholicism involved all facets of the life for the family. Before dinner Grace was always said. As a teenager, she enjoyed going to the movie theater on Sundays. The family owned cars, including a Studebaker and a Nash. The family routinely listened to the radio. My grandmother remembers listening to Franklin Roosevelt on the radio. she classifies him as a wonderful President. The events of World War I seem far away to my family, and we were not touched in a personal way by its effects. Prohibition had a great effect on Clinton County. In the early 1920s, the federal boarder patrol began stopping illegally smuggled liquor from entering the United States from Canada. One route commonly used, ran from Quebec to Plattsburgh, then south to Albany. The waterway, of Lake Champlain, was also used for the transport of illegal alcohol. Bootleggers came in many forms. They were so called because they often hid a flask of liquor in their boot. There were the professional, as spoke of above, who was likely to be an outsider. a local person might traffic for more than his personal use. He might be your neighbor, even a relative. Most local people who trafficked were known by the community. Proving it was another matter. There were also the causal bootlegger, those who might go across the border, get a drink or two there, then bring some back home for later. As you might imagine many skills were employed in the smuggling of booze. The depression of the 1930s lowered wages, and many lost their jobs. My family did not suffer as much as others. My mother recalls that on their farm, where she grew up (Editors note: in Black Brook, NY), there was always plenty to eat. Money raised from the sale of milk yielded very little, so that even though there was an abundance of food, money was very scarce. Bartering was often a way of getting what was needed. No one in my family served in World War II. When I spoke to my mother about this era, she told me some very interesting things directly related to the war. She was a school girl during that time. As many fathers were off to war, the school children were allowed to go home at noon to help with chores for the family. Sugar was one of the items that was very scarce. My maternal grandmother was in the habit of providing her family with baked goods, so when the stores had a supply, she hurried off to get as much as she was allowed. At nighttime some of the townspeople (air wardens) volunteered to keep a lookout for enemy planes. They, also, made sure the local people kept a 'blackout," that is, when the alarm sounded, no light could be seen from your home. A minimum of light was used and drapes and shades were drawn. If any light was visible from outside the warden would come to the door and let you know, and the situation was corrected. During the time of a blackout, cars were required to drive without lights, or with a special light. It was all very serious. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor had shocked everyone, including my mother. It made everyone realize how vulnerable the United States was to attack. My father served in the Korean War, or as it was called police action. He was a marine. Whenever I spoke to him about fighting in the war, he eluded to the fact that he did not much care for the Koreans. The experience of battle in Korea made him feel this way. He does not have anything good to say about going to fight in a war. All six children of my parents attended college. I feel that is quite an achievement considering that my ancestors lived by modest means as farmers and tradesmen. Education did not seem to be a main concern to them, but the better times struggled for over many generations has finally paid off. Not to say that the quality of life is necessarily any better; however I think education and a more active role in society translate to a more fulfilling life. Endnotes 1) Brault, Gerald J., The French Canadian Heritage in New England, page 111. 2) Ibid, page 112 3) Goubert, Pierre, Louis XIV and 20 Million Frenchmen, page 321 4) Brault, page 119 5) Ouellette, Susan, Lifelines, Vol. 8; No. 1, 1991, page 12 Bibliography The French Canadian Heritage in New England by Gerald Brault History of the Acadians by Bono Arsenault New England's Outpost by John Barlette Breber; Hamden: Archon Books, 1965 A Short History of France by Herbert Batterfield, D. W. Brogan, H. C. Darby, J. Hampton Jackson; Cambridge University Press 1961 Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen by Pierre Goubert; New York Pantheon Books, 1966 Lifelines Vol. 8 No. 1 1991, page 12 by Susan Ouellette "1857 Census St. Peter's Church," Plattsburgh, New York "Introduction" by Addie Shields, Marriage Records of Clinton County 1830-1880, Vol. 106 by Benoit Pontbriand Brault Ancestor Chart Vincent BRAULT M. ca 1631 Marie BOURG Port Royal, Acadia Francois BRAULT M. Ca 1702 Marie COMEAU Rivière-Aux-Canada Alexis BRAULT M. ca 1745 Marguerite BARIAULT Acadia Charles BRAULT M. 18 Oct. 1779 Marguerite CLOUATRE Laprairie, Quebec Alexis BRAULT M. 23 Jan. 1804 Felicite TROMBLAY L'Acadie, Quebec Alexis BRAULT M. 21 Nov. 1831 Emilie GIROUX St. Philippe, Laprairie, Que Francois-Xavier BRAULT M. 14 Oct. 1862 Marguerite LEFEBVRE St. Martine, Quebec Francis Alfred BRAULT M. 23 September 1893 Roseanne DESMARAIS Plattsburgh, New York Mary Grace BRAULT M. 17 March 1928 Lawrence BAKER Plattsburgh, New York Richard BAKER M. 29 Nov. 1952 Florence TREMBLEY St. Matthews, Black Brook, NY Lynette BAKER M. July 1988 Paul DOW West Palm Beach, FL
Jun 26, 2014 · posted to the surname Brault
Susan Pombrio The name Pombrio first appears in 1851, but it wasn't until the 1920s that it came into constant use. The first Pombrio to come to the United States was Francois-Eustache. He was the third child of sixteen born to Jean-Baptiste Pontbriand dit Sansregret and Marie-Therese Perron. He was born on the 11th of February 1798 at William Henry, Lower Canada (Sorel, Quebec) and was baptized at the church of St. Pierre de Saurel. He grew up on the banks of the St. Lawrence River where life was dictated by the changing of the seasons. As a young child he would have had many responsibilities, including specific jobs, such as collecting the eggs and feeding the animals. As he matured he might have dreamt of following in his father's footsteps, but reality would soon spoil that dream. Over trapping had depleted the once abundant supply of prized furs and hostilities along the U. S. border during the War of 1812 was a constant threat. Not exactly the way anyone would want to spend their childhood. To complicate matters even further, in 1815 a volcanic eruption in Indonesia sent thick clouds of ash and dust into the air. The result being a cloud cover that in 1816 would prevent the sun from warming the crops; over 80,000 people world wide starved! The average temperature was so low that snowstorms in July were common. To a family whose economic stability was based on farming, this had to have been hard to swallow. Would these events have had an impact on his political and economic choices? Would he have chosen farming as his livelihood? If so, many French-Canadians were uneducated and not up-to-date on agricultural practices. Things that we take for granted today, were not known in the early 1800s. The idea of rotating the crops to preserve the mineral contents of the soil is a fairly modern technique. Over use of the land and a growing population forced many families to look south of the border. At age thirty-nine, this is just what Francois-Eustache did. Small industries were popping up all over the northern tier of Clinton County, New York. Industries such as potash, lumber, charcoal, tanneries, marble, wool and lime were just a few of the developing businesses. Once a family had sons old enough to work outside the home, they would get a job in one of these industries to supplement the family income. For some families this was the only cash brought into the household. Did Eustache and his sons cross the border looking for work? I will explore this later on. Commonly called Eustache, he was married at the age of 21, on the 11th of January 1820 to Felicite Vandal daughter of Jean-Baptiste Vandal and Marguerite St. Martine. Felicite was born about 1826 in Canada, probably in the area of William Henry. She was he great-great granddaughter of the well known 'Coureur de bois,' Francois Vandal and a descendant of Marin Boucher one of the first settlers of New France. To learn more about these ancestors read, Our French-Canadian Ancestors, Vols. 4 & 15 by Thomas J. Laforest. They were married at St. Pierre de Saurel, and the marriage record reads: "The 11th of January 1820, after the publication of three banns of marriage at High Mass at the parish of Saurel, between Eustache Pont Briand, son, of age, of Jean-Baptiste Pont Briand and Therese Peron, of this parish, of the first part and Felicite Vandal, daughter, of age, of Jean Vandal and Marguerite St. Martin, of this parish, of the second part. Without opposition to the marriage, I, the undersigned priest and curate, as is customary with their mutual consent and knowledge of the benediction nuptials and according to the form prescribed by our mother the sacred Roman Church, and in the presence of Jean Pont Briand brother of the groom, of Antoine Peron uncle of the bride, of Paul Ausang brother-in-law, of Jean Vandal father of the bride, Joseph Desault brother-in-law, of Antoine Mathe brother-in-law, and several others of the bride who did not sign." M. Cusson, Ptre. Felicite gave birth to fifteen children, nine of which were born in Canada. Marie was born and baptized nine months after the marriage at St. Pierre de Saurel in 1820. Felicite Louise celebrated her birthday on Christmas Day, but was probably born on the 23rd in 1821. Joseph-Eustache in 1823, Francois in 1826, Narcisse in 1828, Edouard in 1829, Maxime in 1831, Marie-Marcelline in 1833, David in 1835 and Emilie in 1836. Both Marceline and David were baptized at Contrecoeur and Emilie at St. Ours. Why these last three were not baptized at Saurel, I do not know. Perhaps the strain of a growing family had already forced Eustache to look for work elsewhere. All seven of the living children immigrated with their parents to the United States some time between August 1836 (the birth of Emilie) and the winter of 1838-39. According to his son Joseph's naturalization papers he came to the North Country in 1839. Pierre was the first to be born in the US in 1839. The twins Julliette and Julianne were born in April 1841 and Moise in 1842 or 43. There are no baptismal records in Coopersville prior to 1844; the area was served by missionary priests who came through on an irregular basis, therefore, their birth dates come from various records. The last to be born was Thomas in 1845. His baptismal record can be found at St. Joseph's de Corbeau in Coopersville, New York (a small hamlet in the town of Champlain). Major political changes were taking place during this time in Canadian history (1836-39). We do not know whether Francois-Eustache was a Redcoat or a Patriote, but it is safe to say that he wouldn't have moved such a large family unless he was involved in the rebellions or feared for his family's safety. He would have become painfully aware of this danger during a bitter snowstorm on the night of November 16, 1837 when the Royal Montreal Calvary set out to arrest some of the Patriote leaders. Word had leaked out about the plan and the troops were only able to arrest two of the rebels sought. Upon their return to Longueuil on the 17th, they were met by a barricade blocking the road and over 200 rebels waiting to ambush them. Though the soldiers were tipped off, they continued on towards the ferry. This mistake cost them their prisoners: Pierre-Paul Desmaray (Desmarais) and Jean-Francois Davignon were now free. Several of the rebels who participated were interrogated on the 22 of November about their part in the attack. Ironically, this was only one day before the hostilities would escalate. Among those arrested was Eustache's cousin, Regis Pontbrillant, (Archives de Quebec, 1925-26, p152) would have been a major blow to the family, and may have even prompted the move. If his family was still in St. Ours by as late as November 23-25, 1837 he would have witnessed the battles of St. Denis and St. Charles. Reinforcements "from Contrecoeur, St. Ours and Vercheres sailed past the regulars unharmed, the Patriote soldiers defiantly singing their national songs turned the tide of battle in favor of the Patriotes" (from Redcoats and Patriotes by Elinor Senior 85). Their victory was short lived for at the battle of St. Charles over 150 rebels died, homes were burned and families destroyed. Did Eustache play a role in this conflict? That is a question that I can not definitively answer, but according to Dr. Elinor Senior, "a great number of Canadians [were] taking up quarter at Plattsburg, Champlain and other villages on the frontier where arms and ammunition [were] collected for their use" (Senior 151). The History of the Town of Chazy, Clinton County, New York by Sullivan and Martin mentions that the stone house of John-Baptiste Trombly became a refuge for many of them (Patriotes), some made Chazy (which included Altona at this time) their permanent home. The hamlet of Sciota, especially, was settled by these people" (Sullivan and Martin 319). The danger that many families were in, was real for on the 8th of January 1838 we find eleven men were taken prisoner in the town of Mooers and taken back to Canada (Town of Champlain). We can only imagine the fear these people must have lived through. We later find these men being interrogated on the 8th of February 1838 (Archives de Quebec, 1925-26, p252). The largest movement of French-Canadians into the Champlain Valley took place during the second rebellion in November 1838. The family most likely came during this wave of immigration. It was during this time that the military court-martial against insurgent leaders was going on in Montreal. The result was the execution of twelve rebel leaders and the deportation of fifty-eight of their followers to Australia's penal colonies. William Lyon Mackenzie published a letter from a refugee relating the conditions in the North Country, "in cold open barns, on straw, hundreds of poor dejected exiled and wounded Canadians, destitute of everything, receiving but little succor from the people of this place who are themselves poor" (Senior, Lifelines, 23). These brave immigrants "took a gamble for what they hoped would be a good or at least a better life" (Senior 76). "Coming on foot, as they often did, it was impossible to bring with them anything of consequence. Many of the settlers were reduced nearly to salvation" (75). This poverty was described by Dr. David Kellogg in his personal journal. He "described the squalor of a French-Canadian household that he had visited in order to deliver a child. This passage dispassionately described the poor woman who had no cloth in which to wrap the newly delivered infant and so was forced to remove one of her petticoats to receive him. Dr. Kellogg's observations included the fact that there was little furniture: it was icy cold in spite of the fact there was a stove in the main room of the house: that this was the woman's ninth child: and his final comment on the whole affair concluded that 'they ought to have named the baby Klondike, but instead they called him Napoleon'" (Ouellette 11-12). Dr. Kellogg's description of this birth is similar to the birth of Julliette and Julianne in April 1841. Our ancestors were very poor and now they had twins! How easy it is to picture their dilemma. The following story was retold prior to 1967 by Gladys Lamondy Gould Demerioux in a letter to Audrey Pombrio Dragoon, it tells the story of the adoption of Julliette: "About the child that was given away. Mother's father had twin sisters. One named Louise but she doesn't remember the other ones name. Louise was married to Pisson (Passant) Jeannotte. When they were young they were poor and this women was well to do had lost a child recently, had begged the mother of the twins to let her have one of the girls and promised to take good care of [her]. They were Americans and the child was not brought up Catholic. When she became the age to make her First Communion her mother wanted her back but the lady refused to to give her back to her mother. They went to the law about it and the law told the parents that they either had to pay for the child's bored and room all the time this lady had her or if they could steal her, they could keep her. They did get a hold of her one day but the woman saw them and got a hold of the girl and nearly pulled her arm off. So the parents gave up, rather then hurt her. The child grew up and married a well to do man. Mother says she was a handsome woman" (Lamonday Letter, nd). Note: Felicite Louise (pictured in an earlier post) was not one of the twins. Jullianne died at age 16 and her twin Julliette who was given away married Stephen Chilton (6). In the Catholic Church First Communion and Solemn Communion were significant events in a child's life. Near the end of the first grade, children received First Communion in a group at a very informal ceremony in the church sacristy. Solemn Communion was a very "impressive ritual. Girls wore white dresses, gloves, shoes, stockings, and veils; boys dark blue suites with a white arm band. At Mass, the communicant was given a cloth scapular to wear and a certificate that was often framed and proudly displayed in the parlor. A festive meal in the young person's honor followed in the home. It was customary for parents and Godparents to present to their child gifts on this occasion" (Brault 33). When Eustache and Felicite realized that Juliette was not going to be brought up in the Catholic faith, it must have been quite a blow to them. Felicite died soon after the attempt to get Juliette back, on the fourth of April 1848, at the age of forty-two, and is buried at St. Louis de France Cemetery Sciota, New York. Since Felicite is buried in Sciota and Eustache didn't purchase land there until 1849 it may be safe to say that the family was probably renting at this time. According to the 1840 U. S. census the family was listed in Champlain, New York. Eustache was listed simply as working in agriculture. By 1849 he purchased land from Allen Wilson situated in lot #4 of the 420 acre lots of the Refugee Patent (Clinton County Deed Books Vol. 17, 1849:261). This chosen lot is located two miles east of the village of Sciota on the Miner Farm Road (see map). He was one of the first settlers on the road in 1848. Prior to the purchase of land, there usually was a gentlemen's agreement to clear the land, and keep whatever lumber was needed to build a house and the rest of the trees went to the lumbering company that owned the land. Once a large enough section was cleared and was of no use to the company, they'd sell the land to their tenant. Settling in this area of Clinton County was no easy task, the "forest [was] so thick [you] couldn't see the sun till noon" (Sullivan and Martin 133). Eustache and his sons would have needed to first clear the land and then build a cabin to live in. "The ideal time for cutting trees was in early summer. They were then left lying on the ground until September, when they were set fire and burned ...the choice oak and pine were saved for lumber. After the initial cutting, it took another half dozen years to rid the fields of the stumps" (73). The first dwelling used by the family was a log cabin. The logs would have been hewn on the inside and the cracks plugged with cedar wedges and moss and plastered over with clay. At first the windows were covered with greased paper or wooden shutters that could only be opened in good weather. The roof was often made of thick shingles pegged to the roof with hand whittled pegs. There was one, all purpose, room with a packed dirt floor and a loft reached by a ladder (74). "Wheat and turnips seemed to have been the first crops. With the help of only a sickle, a hoe, a grain cradle, and a plow or even just a forked stick to break the soil...corn was eventually available. Later apples, pears, and peaches, plums and cherries were added. It took several years before there were many apples as the trees were mostly started from seeds...Apple brandy, cider, and various kinds of strong drink were usual beverages"(75). Eustache married for the second time to Marie Anne Chauvin at St. Joseph's de Corbeau on the 22nd of September 1848. Marie Anne was the widow of Joseph Livemois and the daughter of Joseph Chauvin and Marianne La Roche. This marriage did not produce any children. They were married only five months after the death of Felicite in April. It would not be fair to judge this union with today's standards. A widower with eight children at home, six under the age of thirteen, needed a woman to run the household and take over the raising of the children. One month after this union the family celebrated another wedding, that of Marie-Marcelline to Alexander Faureault, grandson of Lt. Alexander Faureault of "Congress' Own Regiment" (10). Eustache was quickly turning his home into a prosperous enterprise as demonstrated in the 1850 U. S. census for Chazy, which listed the value of his real estate at $300. Another document pertaining to Eustache is found in the Clinton County Mortgages between his son Francois, himself and his wife Mary of Chazy, New York in consideration of $680 sold to Francois, twenty-four acres of land off the north part of the west 150 acres of lot #4 in the Refugee Tract, also a piece of land which was part of lot #3 of the 420 acre lot. Also sold were all cattle, horses, and all other personal property of any description. The grant was intended for the fulfillment of the following, be supported in a manner in sickness and in health at his present residence or any other suitable place, they should also have the use of a horse wagon needed for business or comfort for taking rides for health or to be furnished with a necessary amount of money when there [is a need]...recorded July 15, 1864 (Vol. NN, p97). Marie-Anne died on All Saint's Day (11) in 1865 at Sciota, and was buried on the 3rd of November at St. Louis de France Cemetery, Sciota. The witnesses to the burial were Francois Pontbriand and Michel Paquet. Eustache lived out his remaining years with his son Francois' family. It is impossible to give an accurate description of Eustache, but after viewing photographs of five consecutive generations of Pombrio men, one might determine that he was quite tall, fit and trim with brown hair and brown eyes. Over the years Eustache saw his family spread throughout the country. During his lifetime he saw the birth of fifteen children and at least seventy-one grandchildren. He died on the 30th of April 1878 at Sciota (12) and was buried on the 1st of May at St. Louis de France Cemetery. The witnesses to the burial were James Pelletier and Louis Pontbriand (13). The burial record at St. Joseph de Corbeau Coopersville, New York recorded his name as "FanFan." Children of [1] Francois-Eustache Pontbriand and Felicite Vandal: 2) Marie born 21st/baptized 23 Sept. 1820 St. Pierre de Saurel, Sorel, Lower Canada 3) Felicite Louise born 23 or 25 December 1821 or 1822 Sorel, Lower Canada, died 15th of January 1915 married the 11th of February 1840 St. Joseph's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York, Passant Jeannotte (Person Genette ) 4) Joseph-Eustache born 19th/baptized 20th October 1823 St. Pierre de Saurel, Sorel, Lower Canada died July 28, 1886 Sciota, New York, married the 4th of October 1847 St. Joseph's de Corbeau, Coopersville, New York, Angeline Lepine 5) Francois born 15th/baptized 16th April 1826 St. Pierre de Saurel, Sorel, Lower Canada died 18th January 1906 married 9th January 1849 St. Joseph's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York, Marie LaRouche 6) Narcisse baptized 14th June 1828 St. Pierre de Saurel, Sorel, Lower Canada d. 29th of September 1828 buried St. Pierre de Saurel 7) Edouard baptized September 1829 St. Pierre de Saurel, Sorel, Lower Canada, burial stone lists birth as 2nd August 1828 died 5th May 1898 (stone reads May27) buried St. Louis de France, Sciota, New York, not married, Clinton County Wills, Vol. II 30th August 1896 left to his brother Moses #15 all his property, land, mortgages, notes, certificates of deposit in the First National Bank of Plattsburgh, etc., the mortgage against his brother Francois #5 shall not be foreclosed and that Moses shall be executor of this will. 8) Maxime baptized 20th August 1831 St. Pierre de Saurel, Sorel, Lower Canada m/1 14 April 1852 St. Joseph's de Corbeau, Coopersville, New York, Julie Pinsonnault-Methot, m/2 27th September 1864 St. Peter's Plattsburgh, New York, Edesse Germaine-Belisle 9) Marie-Marceline baptized 15 June 1833 Contrecoeur, Lower Canada died 26th September 1862 married 30th October 1848 St. Joseph's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York, Alexander Faureault 10) David baptized 28 February 1835 Contrecoeur, Lower Canada died 19th October 1910 Altona, New York married Amelia (Emilie) Dame 11) Emilie (Amelia) born 30th/baptized 31st August 1836 Saint-Ours, Lower Canada died 24th January 1890 Barrie, Vermont married 4th of July 1854 St. Joseph's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York, Oliver Jeanotte (15) 12) Pierre born ca 1839 Champlain, New York went west or south at age 16, never returned home (Hazen) 13) Julliette born April 1841 Champlain, New York (twin) died 26 January 1914 buried Protestant Cementery Ellenburg Corners, New York, married ca 1859 Stephen N. Chilton of Ellenburg, New York 14) Julianne born April 1841 Champlain, New York (twin) died 17th of July 1857 Sciota, New York buried 19th of July 1857 St. Louis de France Sciota, New York 15) Moise, (Moyse, Moses) born 28th of May 1842/43 Corbeau (Champlain), New York died 23rd of December 1920 St. Louis de France Cemetery Sciota, New York, married 16th of July 1873 Champlain, New York, Adalina Willet (Ouelette) 16) Thomas born 7th/baptized 9th July 1845 Corbeau (Champlain), New York Godparents: Francois Chapdelaine and Marguerite Lamoy, died 7th/buried 9th of June 1857 St. Louis de France Cemetery Sciota, New York Second Generation 4) Joseph-Eustache Pontbriand [son of #1] eldest son of Francois-Eustache Pontbriand and Felicite Vandal, was born on the 19th of October 1823 in William Henry, Lower Canada. He was baptized on the 20th at St. Pierre de Saurel, his godparents were Joseph Young (16) and Marie Esthier-Defisiau. His cemetery stone has his birthdate as February 19, 1821 however, this cannot be correct since his sister was born in September 1820. According to his naturalization papers he immigrated at the age of fifteen from the province of Canada East. His papers were filed on the 24th of September 1856 at the age of thirty-five while residing in the town of Champlain, New York (Clinton County Book 2, 271). If Joseph-Eustache was fifteen years old when the family immigrated then they most likely came in the fall or early winter of 1838. After all a large family needed to have a place to stay. I find no indication that his family remained behind. Another possibility is that they came in a hurry after the failed rebellions of 1838. What must it have been like to be a young man approaching adulthood and have all that was familiar to you uprooted, your dreams gone. Not old enough to decide to remain behind yet old enough to be expected to help out with whatever was needed to support this family. He married at St. Joseph de Corbeau Coopersville, New York on the 4th of October 1847 to Angeline Lepine. The witnesses to this union were the father's of the bride and groom. Joseph and Angeline set up house in Champlain near his parents' home. The 1850 U. S. census shows that he was listed as a farmer with the value of his real estate at $125. The role of both mother and wife was not an easy one. This marriage saw the birth of twelve children, the first Angeline was born in 1849. The following year was Marguerite's turn and then Joseph in 1853, Marie-Rosalie in 1855, Francois in 1857, Jean-Baptiste in 1859, Julie in 1861, Maxime in 1864, Simeon was born around 1865 (the only record of him that I can find is the 1870 U. S. Census records for Altona, New York), Antoine in 1867, Julianne in 1871 and nine years later in 1880 William was born. According to the "Sullivan Papers" found in the Chazy Town Historian's office, Joseph first settled in Altona on the French-Settlement Road (17) around 1859. He purchased land on the 12th of December 1858 from Horace Hayford (18) of the Town of Champlain and his wife Elizabeth; for the sum of $375.00. The chosen lot would take some time to clear. It was located on the north half of the south-east quarter of lot #151 of the Dueville Patent, containing thirty-one and one-fourth acres of land (Clinton County Deeds, Vol. 32, 463). This lot was located near the OK Wood Company and is most likely where he worked. In the 1860 census for Altona, he was listed as a day laborer, who could neither read nor write; however, by 1870 we find him running his own farm. Angeline was born on July 28, 1828 at William Henry, Lower Canada, the daughter of Antoine Berard dit Lepine and Marguerite Germaine dit Belisle. She was a descendent of Thomas Hayot, Sebastien Provencher and Andre Bergeron. To learn more about these men read, Our French-Canadian Ancestors Vols. 5, 6 & 19 by Thomas J. Laforest. Her parents soon left the Champlain Valley and moved to Pepin County, Wisconsin where the family finally settled. Antoine was the great great grandson of Gabriel Berard dit Lepine a well know "Coureur de Bois," a runner of the woods, from the Seigneurie of Lanoraie. In Clinton County the Lepine family were still known as "voyageurs" and the pamphlet "Antoine Paulin" (Reed 44) found in the Clinton County Historian's Office mentions the excellent singing voice of Mr. Lepine, a local voyageurs (3) and fisherman. Joseph-Eustache died on July 28, 1886 at the age of 63 and is buried at St. Louis de France Cemetery Sciota, New York. Following his death the family farm was run by their son Joseph. Angeline moved soon after the death of her husband to Nashua, New Hampshire to live with her son William when she decided to buy the farm from the heirs for $1.00 on the 6th of October 1897. She then sold the farm and all the equipment to her son Joseph on the 26th of March 1898 for the same amount. In 1910 we find Angeline still living with her son William in Nashua, where she died on the 11th of February 1916 at age 88 of acute bronchitis and was buried on the 13th at St. Aloysius Catholic Church in Nashua. Children of [4] Joseph-Eustache Pontbriand [son of 1] and Angeline Lepine 17) Angeline born 25/baptized 27 January 1849 St. Joseph's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York, died 3rd of July 1928 Mooers, New York, married 5 July 1870 St. Joseph's de Corbeau, Edgar (Ignace) Brousseau (Bruso) 18) Marguerite born 20th of December 1850 Champlain (Coopersville), New York died the 22nd December 1938 in Sciota, New York, married Isreal Leaor 19) Joseph P. born the 24th of February 1853 Coopersville, New York died the 3rd of May 1940 married the 14th of May 1872 at St. Joseph's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York Matilde Brousseau (Bruso) 20) Marie-Rosalie born 2nd of April 1855 Champlain (Coopersville), New York, died the 3rd of June 1933 Nashua, New Hampshire, married 16th of July 1873 Champlain, New York, Richard Clairmont 21) Francois H. born the 5th of June 1857 Champlain, New York, died the 23rd of December 1933 Nashua, New Hampshire, married 1st 14th of August 1876 Grand Isle, Vermont, Eliza (Louise) Tarte, married 2nd 20 February 1882 Nashua, Rose Monty 22) Jean-Baptiste born 8th of September 1859, Chazy, New York baptized the 8th of October 1859 St. Joseph 's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York Godparents: Francois a Rondeau and Eleonore Lepine, died 1860/buried 19th of September 1860 St. Joseph's de Corbeau 23) Julie born 19th August/baptized 29th September 1861 St. Joseph 's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York, Godparents: Louis Lepine (Uncle) and Marie Forget, died the 24th of October 1862 Sciota, New York 24) Maxime H. born 24th/baptized 27th July 1864 died 23rd of May 1934, married 19th of August 1889 Nashua, New Hampshire, Exeline Monty 25) Simeon born around 1865 Sciota, New York 26) Antoine born 3rd of November 1867 and baptized 2 February 1868 St. Joseph's de Corbeau Coopersville, New York, died the 26 the of January 1952, married 26th of December 1898 St. Peter's Church Plattsburgh, New York, Amelia Millette 27) Julianne born 21st of August 1871 Sciota, New York, died the 4th of April 1967 Nashua, New Hampshire, married 24th of November 1890 Nashua, New Hampshire, Oliver Ellingwood (Pierre La Normandin) 28) William W. born 24th of May 1880 Sciota, New York, died 17th November 1941 Nashua, New Hampshire, never married Third Generation 19) Joseph P. Pontbriand (Pombrio) [son of #4, #1] (farmer) eldest son of Joseph-Eustache Pontbriand and Angeline Lepine was born on the 24th of February 1853 at Coopersville, New York and baptized at St. Joseph's de Corbeau Coopersville. His godparents were Joseph Lepine and Leonora St. Germain. Six years later his family settled in Sciota, New York where he remained until his death in 1940. It is there that he met his future wife, his next door neighbor Matilde Bruso (Brousseau) (20). Joseph attended school house #9 a mere two mile walk. The family may have also walked to church, though the church building was still to be constructed, but services were often held in local homes. In 1899 he donated money towards the construction of St. Louis de France Church in Sciota, where one of the windows is dedicated to "M. et Mde. Joseph Pontbriand." A neighbor of his future in-laws, he was listed as a day laborer in the 1870 U. S. census. Could he have worked for Louis Brousseau? Or the OK Wood Company whose property adjourned his parents? The area where they settled was described in the 1869 Beer's Atlas as rolling upland, with a slight incline to the north-east and the Great Chazy River as it's principle stream. The soil is light and sandy, with a large share unfit for cultivation. Joseph and Matilde were married on the 14th of May 1872 at St. Joseph's de Corbeau. She was born during the summer of 1853 on August 26th at Sciota to Louis Brousseau and Rosella Jeannotte (21). Her baptism took place on the 15th of September 1853 at St. Joseph's de Corbeau in Coopersville. Her godparents were Oliver Brousseau and Meli Yacon. Soon after this union their home began to fill with children. David was born in January 1873, Edouard in September 1875, George in July 1878, Elsie in December 1880, Henri in April 1883, Hartford in April 1885, Joseph-Henri July 1887, Aurelie in March 1889, and Anna Marie in January 1891. Though this family may seem large enough, according to the 1910 census Matilde was the mother of twelve children with nine still living. My dad tells me there was a Leeward but I can't seem to find him listed any where. I wonder if he might be thinking of Leeward (22) son of Francois Pontbriand and Alberta (Bertha) Dame? I also found an Alice listed as being born in 1880 on the census records, but I'm not sure if this is Elsie or not. On the 9th of March 1897 Joseph purchased the land next to his mother's property for $250.00, from Luther and Alice Hager of Plattsburgh. The lot was twenty-one and one quarter acres of land more or less in the south-west one quarter of lot #151 of the Dueville Patent bounded north by land owned by James Blair; east by the highway, south by land of John Liberty and J. Brombia (Joseph Pontbriand) and west by land of the OK Wood Company, on by the lot line, the said lot owned by Silas Sheldon on the assessment roll, and recorded on the 31st of March 1897. In 1898 he purchased the family farm from his mother for $1.00 on March 26th, she had bought it from the heirs for one dollar (Clinton County Deeds Vol. 95, p975). The north half of the southeast quarter of lot #151 of the Deuville Patent, contains thirty-one and one fourth acres of land. As his holdings began to grow it probably seemed like nothing could go wrong, but it did. In the fall of 1900 a tragic farm incident left Joseph-Henri dead from a ruptured spleen. He could not have been the first child to die, I am still looking for mention of the remaining children. According to the "Sullivan Papers" in the Chazy Historians office, Joseph Pontbriand (Pombrio) after settling on the French Settlement Road (17) later moved to the Altona-Sciota Road (9), on the so called Murkin's Farm where he died. I have not yet found when he sold his properties and moved, but it is believed that he moved some time between 1915-1918 since he was still living on the Vassar Road (Old French Settlement Road) during the 1910 and 1915 censuses. In 1918 following the deaths of their son David, their daughter-in-law Addie and two of their grandchildren, the family took in the surviving children. This however turned out to be too much for a couple in their mid-sixties to handle. The children would end up being split up among their aunts and uncles. My grandfather Oral ended up living with his aunt Mamie for a time. Sometime between 1937 and 1939 author Celeste Pember Hazen paid a visit to Joseph Pombrio at his home in Sciota. I would caution the reader to be careful with the conclusions that she came too. She does however, leave us a quote from Joseph, which was mentioned in a previous article and repeated here. "You'll notice that we spell our name Pombrio. The name has changed several times, because the older people could neither read nor write. They had no school privileges in Canada. When we went to school the teacher would ask us our name and we would have to let her spell it the best she could from the pronunciation. So it has been written: Pontbriand, DesPonbriand, Pombrah, Pombria, Bombrah etc" (Hazen 133-134). I do not know if Joseph learned to read or write in English. The census records indicate that he could not read or write, yet the letters home were all in English. Could someone have read the letters to him? He must have been able to understand and speak the language. Matilde died on the 9th of March 1937 just two months shy of their 65th wedding anniversary. At the time of her death she had witnessed the birth of twenty-three great grandchildren. Joseph died on the 3rd of May 1940 in Plattsburgh, and the burial service took place at St. Louis de France at Sciota at 9:00 AM, with the Mass celebrated by the Rev. Fr. Lawrence E. Mallette. Those who attended the funeral from out of town were, Mr./Mrs. Antoine Pombrio (23), Mrs. Juliane Lamonday (24), Mr./Mrs. Lawrence Pombrio (25), Mr./Mrs. Floyd Pombrio (26), Jeanette Pombrio (27), and Mr./Mrs. Maxwell Pombrio (28). The pall bearers were Wilmer (29), Willard (30), and Maxwell (28) Pombrio, Hershey (31) and Russell (32) Trombley and Henry Neverette (33). By the time of his death he had seen the birth of forty-five grandchildren and thirty great grandchildren. One of the great grandchildren to have known him was my father David. Though only six years old at the time he can still remember the visits to the farm and how much fun he had when he went to visit. Children of [19] Joseph P. Pombrio [son of 4, 1] and Matilde Bruso 29) David born January 5, 1873 Sciota, New York died October 2, 1918 Barre, Vermont married October 5, 1898, Addie Neddo (Nadeau) 30) Edouard born September 18, 1875 Sciota, New York died January 13, 1963 married December 26, 1905 Marguerite Dowd, Plattsburgh, New York 31) George born July 27, 1878 Sciota, New York died 1954 married September 27, 1905, Elizabeth Pelletier 32) Alice born ca 1880 Is this Elsie or one of the missing children? 33) Elsie Mae born December 4, 1880 Sciota, New York died October 2, 1980 Married November 26, 1906, Henry Neverette 34) Henri born April 21, 1883 Sciota, NY, died May 11, 1873, never married, according to the 1917 Chazy Military Rolls his occupation was a painter 35) Ardie (Hardie, Hartford) born April 1, 1885 Sciota, NY died June 29, 1906 married Dec. 24, 1911, Ida (Edith) Mousseau 36) Joseph-Henri born July 1887 Sciota, NY died 13 yrs. 3 mos. buried Oct. 9, 1900 Sciota, NY, ruptured spleen, witnesses Joseph Pontbriand and David Pontbriand 37) Aurelie (Rillie) born March 7, 1889 Sciota, NY died March 25, 1959 married April 1, 1907, Wilburt Trombley 38) Anna Marie (Mamie) born Jan. 4, 1891 Sciota, NY died Feb. 17, 1981 married/1 April 19, 1909 Alfred Trombly, married/2 after 1938 Wilfred Varno 39) ? 39a) ? Fourth Generation 29) David [son of 19, 4 & 1] Pombrio eldest son of Joseph P. Pombrio and Matilde Bruso born on the 5th of January 1873 Sciota, New York. In 1892 he was listed as living at home it was some time after that that he left to find work in Nashua, New Hampshire in the mills. He most likely left with a group of other young men from the area for we find a strong connection between the families of Clinton County, New York and Nashua, New Hampshire. I can not determine the exact dates that he lived there, but we know that he was living in Barre, Vermont and working as a granite cutter in the quarries in 1898 when he married Addie Neddo (Nadeau). They were married on the 5th of October 1898 at St. Monica's Church in Barre. The pastor P. M. McKenna officiated at the nuptial Mass. The bride was born on the 22nd of October 1877 or the 13th of November 1876 in Mooers, New York. Though the 1877 date is widely accepted her baptism was recorded on March 18th 1877 at St. Anne's Mooers Forks, New York. Her Godparents were Joseph Desjardin and Henrietta Desjardin. Addie was the daughter of Philippe (Felix) Joseph Neddo (Nadeau ) and Emma (Amanda) Longway (Langlois). After losing her mother during the summer of 1888 at the young age of eleven her father would soon move the family from Ellenburg, New York to Barre, Vermont where he ran a blacksmith shop. We know that Addie could read and write in English and it may have been the language of the household since all of the letters and postcards in my possession were written by her in English. We can also glean from one of her postcards home that she supported a woman's Right to Vote, but we have no indication what the men in her life might of thought of the idea. We can also determine that this was a typical French-Canadian household living in the northeastern United States at this time in history. English was beginning to replace French, schooling was becoming more important and the families were leaving the farms and heading to centers of industry such as Nashua, New Hampshire and Lowell, Massachusetts. The following letter was written by Addie around the summer 1917. Barre, VT Dear Folks at Home, We are all well here at the present and hope you are all the same. David and the boys are working everyday all but Oral he left work to go to school and suppose you know that Floyd is back. He had his finger broke and all jammed up so had to come home it is better now and he is working in the stone shed but don't like it very well. He gets paid $2.00 per day and so does Virgil. There is lots of work here and big pay and there is lots of folks leaving Barre going down country to work. Father came here with Floyd but has gone back. David says we are going after Christmas we are having lonesome weather it is raining today and I hate to think of the Long winter coming. Must tell you about the baby, I named her Ivas Marie and we all think she is the cutest baby we ever see and she is just as good as can be she sleeps most all the time. We could have went to see you last Sat. with Wm. Abair folks they went to Canada to his folks they wanted us to go but we could not leave. The boys are always saying they are going to grandpa 's for Christmas, would like to have you come for X-Mass do you think you can? Mother must tell you that we had very poor luck we planted a lot but did not get hardly anything, our potatoes are rotten and they are going to be nigh. Again this fall we pay .50 per lb for butter .10 a quart for milk, .50 for eggs, sugar .10 lb ... I don't know what people will do if it keeps on having to pay $3.50 for a load of stove wood, and $10.00 for coal. I just got a card from Ellis (33), he is in Valley City, North Dakota. I was awful surprised to [hear] from him hadn't heard from him for a long time. Hope father is better. Is George (#31) working in Montreal yet? Is Henry (#34) working in the same place? This is all it is supper time. The kids are coming in good-bye. From, Addie P. S. This is all for this, write soon. Love from Addie and Dave. Children of (29) David Pombrio [son of 19, 4, 1] and Addie Neddo: 40) Floyd Elles born January 23, 1900 died May 30, 1967 married November 30, 1920, Beatrice Mayette 41) Virgil Anthony born September 3, 1901 Barre, Vermont died October 10, 1918 Barre,Vermont (Tool Sharpener) 42) Marvin Joseph Lyles born September 6, 1902 Barre, Vermont died October 4, 1918 Barre, Vermont (Tool Sharpener) 43) Aurele (Oral) David born April 20, 1904 died December 17, 1981 married September 2, 1933, Albaine Blanche Naomi Elizabeth Laravie 44) Maxwell Philip born July 11, 1906 died October 28, 1953 married December 26, 1931, Marie Ann Ida Soucy 45) Audrey May born August 22, 1908 died May 1, 1991 married March 22, 1927, Ralph Dragoon 46) Madeleine born March 22, 1912 Barre, Vermont died March 22, 1912 Barre, Vermont, 5 hours old (born prematurely) 47) Dorothy Lorraine born 13/14 May 1913 Barre,Vermont died February 7, 1983 married June 24, 1935, Joseph Loyal LaRouche (Stone) 48) Female unnamed born April 23, 1915 Barre, Vermont died April 23, 1915 Barre, Vermont, 5 hours old (stillborn after a fall) 49) Ivas Marie born July 20, 1917 died 1990 Married May 12, 1937, Albert Paro Fifth Generation 43) Aurele (Oral) David [son of 29, 19, 4, 1] was born on April 20, 1904 in Barre, Vermont. He married on the second of September 1933 at St. Peter's Church in Plattsburgh, New York to Albaine Blanche Naomi Elizabeth Laravie the youngest child of the late Napoleon E. Laravie (founder of the first paid fire department in the city of Plattsburgh) and Philomene Fountaine. It was a very simple ceremony with only a few family members present. They were married at St. Peter's Church Plattsburgh, New York in the sacristy chapel with Marjorie Laravie and Wilmer Pombrio as their witnesses. The Rev. G. Ouellette, OMI., officiated at the ceremony. Blanche was born in the spring of 1907 in Plattsburgh, New York. The first Laravie (Larrivee) to come to Plattsburgh was Calixte Laravie (Larrivee) who was married to Marguerite Smith. The granddaughter of John Smith and Anastasia Hebert, an accepted Royal descent that have common ancestors with Henry I of England, William the Conqueror, Alfred the Great and Charlemagne etc.. She was a graduate of the Plattsburgh Normal School now the State University of New York at Plattsburgh. A career girl she was twenty-six years old when they married, Oral was twenty-nine. Blanche gave up her career to become a full time wife and mother. They moved into their first home on the Quarry Road in Plattsburgh. Blanche purchased the home from Francis Archambault and his wife Rose for $2,032.99. It was a one-quarter acre lot. Within a few years they would sell the house to her brother Arthur and move to 3 Lynde Street in Plattsburgh. Oral soon settled down to earning a living for his family. He found employment at the U. S. Post Office where he remained until his retirement. It was estimated that he had walked the circumference of the earth while doing his deliveries over the years. An avid fisherman it was not unusual to hear that he and Blanche had gone fishing for the day with the children. He even belonged to the local Rod and Gun Club. Both sons David and Philip received the sacraments at St. Peter's Church and attended Mount Assumption Institute (now Seton Catholic). Oral died December 17, 1981 in Plattsburgh, New York and Blanche died February 20, 1988 in Plattsburgh. Children of (43) Oral Pombrio [son of 29, 19, 4, 1] and Blanche Laravie 50) David Joseph Pombrio born February 24, 1934 Plattsburgh, New York married September 25, 1954 at St. Peter's Church in Plattsburgh, Marian Patricia Baker born December 13, 1934 in Chazy, New York died March 15, 2001 in Plattsburgh, daughter of Lawrence Baker and Grace Brault 51) Philip Ronald born December 21, 1935 in Plattsburgh, New York married/1 1957 in Corinth, New York Barbara Ann Hughes born April 29, 1941 in Corinth and died February 3, 2012 in Corinth, (divorced), daughter of Joseph Hughes and Mary Gabriel, married/2 Janet___________________ 52) Unnamed female, born and died same day Footnotes 1) Between 1787-1845 the town of Sorel, Quebec was called William Henry. 2) The National Geographic Society reported that this was the worst eruption ever recorded. 3) A "Coureur de bois" traded for furs, often without a license. By this time in history the terms "Coureur de Bois" and "Voyageur" were being used to mean the same thing, though there is a difference. A voyageur signed a contract with a company under specific terms, and they did not need to hunt for their food since the merchant's had regular supply depots. 4) Dr. David Kellogg was a doctor in Plattsburgh in the 1880s. 5) Juliette was adopted by James and Amy (Babcock) Sweet of Champlain, NY later of Ellenburg, New York. 6) Author's note- Not the correct sister. The twins were Juliette and Julianne. Louise however, did marry Pisson Jeannotte. 7) In the Catholic Church First Communion and Solemn Communion are now celebrated as one event, but still much in the same fashion as described. 8) Sciota was formerly known as Obers Corners. 9) The Miner Farm Road used to be known as the Sciota Road. 10) Congress' Own Regiment, was made up of a French-Canadians who fought in the American Revolutionary War. 11) November 1, 1865 12) His tombstone reads: Augustus Pombrah, Latin version of Eustache. 13) I do not know how these gentlemen are connected to the family. Perhaps this Louis Pontbriand is his second cousin once removed. 14) Francois in 1857 was listed on a military census for Chazy as eligible to serve. 15) Oliver in 1858 was listed on a military census for Chazy as eligible to serve. 16) Joseph Young, was the son of Hendrick Young, and according to Benoit Pontbriand he was known as a loyalist during the American Revolution. 17) Old French Settlement Road in Sciota, New York is now called the Vassar Road. 18) Horace Hayford was his neighbor in the town of Champlain. 19) Chazy Landing was commonly called East Chazy between 1836-1900. 20) Matilde is accually his third cousin. Both Joseph and Matilde are the great great grandchildren of Francois Berard dit Lepine and Marie-Angelique Moreau. 21) Rosella is the sister of Passant Jeanotte spouse of #3 and the aunt of Oliver Jeanotte spouse of #11. 22) According to Matilde's funeral announcement she was survived by her sons Henri, Edouard, Ardie and George. Since Matilde died in 1937 when my father was only three years old and no Leeward was listed, then I must conclude that he remembers visiting his father's second cousin once removed who married Emma Dragoon (note Audrey May Pombrio #45 married Ralph Dragoon) 23) Antoine was the son of Joseph-Eustache and Angeline Lepine. 24) Julianne was the daughter of Joseph-Eustache Pontbriand and Angeline Lepine. 25) Lawrence was the son of Antoine Pontbriand and Amelia Mayette. 26) Floyd was the son of David Pombrio and Addie Neddo. 27) Jeannette was the daughter of Floyd Pombrio and Beatrice Mayette. 28) Maxwell was the son of David Pombrio and Addie Neddo. 29) Wilmer was the son of Edouard Pombrio and Marguerite Dowd. 30) Willard was the son of Hardie Pombrio and Ida Mousseau. 31) Hershey was the son of Aurelie Pombrio and Wilbur Tromblay. 32) Russell was the son of Anna Marie Pombrio and Alfred Tromblay. 33) Ellis is Addie's brother. Works Cited A.C.G.S. Letter. Dec. 14, 1982. Archives de Quebec. Rapport de L'Archiviste de La Province de Quebec, 1931-1932:290, 296. Jean-Baptiste Billerant dit Sans Regret. ---. ---. 1942-1943:343. Joseph Pombriant. Bernier, Olivier. Louis the Beloved: The Life of Louis XV. Garden City, New York:Doubleday @ Company Inc., 1984. Brault, Gerard J. The French Canadian Heritage in New England. Kingston/Montreal:McGill-Queen's University Press, 1986. Buskey, Edna. 'A Quebecois in "Congress' Own" and The New York Refugee Tract.' The Genealogist Vol. IX No. 2, Fall 83:44-48. Careless, James M.S. "Life in New France, 1663-1760" Our French-Canadian Ancestors Vol. 1. Ed. Thomas J. Laforest. Palm Harbor, Florida:LISI Press, 1984. ---. ---. ---. Vol. 2. Ed. Thomas J. Laforest. Palm Harbor, Florida:LISI Press, 1984. Casanova, Jacques-Donat and Armour Landry. America's French Heritage. La Documentation Francaise and the Quebec Official Publishers, 1976. Charbonneau, Hubert and Jacques Legare. Repertoire des Actes de Bapteme, Mariage, Sepulture, et des Recensements du Quebec Ancien. Vol 14 (1700-1729). Montreal:Les Presses de L'Universite de Montreal, 1981. ---. ---. Vol. 15 (1700-1729). Montreal:Les Presses de L'Universite de Montreal, 1981. ---. ---. Vol. 26 (1729-1749). Montreal:Les Presses de L'Universite de Montreal, 1984. ---. ---. Vol. 41 (1750-1765). Montreal:Les Presses de L'Universite de Montreal, 1988. Cyr, Roger. "The Forgotten Filiation." The Genealogist. Aug. 1981, 31-47. Dicinson, John a. and Brian Young. A Short History of Quebec. Toronto:Copp Clark Pitman, 1993. Dow, Lynnette M. "Brault-The Journey." Lifelines. Spring 1995:49-61. Ducharme, Richard. Letter. Feb. 2, 1997. Harris, Richard C. The Seigneurial System in Early Canada. Quebec Les Presses de L'Universite Laval, 1968. Hazen, Celeste P. John Pember, A History of the Pember Family in America. np, 1939. Hemon, Louis. Maria Chapdelaine. Toronto:MacMillan Co. of Canada, 1923. Institut Genealogique Drouin. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens-Francais. 1608-1760. Three Vols. Montreal:Institut Genealogique Drouin. 1965; rev. ed, 1975. Jette, Rene. Dictionnaire Genealogique des Familles du Quebec. Montreal:Les Presses de L'Universite de Montreal, 1983. Lamonday, Gladys. Letter. nd. Lavender, David. Winner Take All:The Trans-Canada Canoe Trail. New York:McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1977. "Loiselle Marriage Records." Microfilm Mongeau, Antonio. Mariages de St. Pierre-de Sorel 1675-1865. Ed. Benoit Pontbriand. Sillery, Que: Pontbriand, 1967. Pontbriand, Benoit. Letter. Nov. 7, 1982. ---. Letter. nd. ---. "Briand dit Sansregret (Pontbriand)." Lifelines. Spring 1992:63-86. Potaski, Michael R. "Garrand's in New York." Lifelines. Spring 1995:37-41 Senior, Elinor K. Redcoats and Patriotes: The Rebellions in Lower Canada 1837-1838. Stitsville, Ontario:Canada Wings, 1985. Stacey, C.P. "Military History." Canadiana. Vol. 7. Toronto: Grolier of Canada Limited, 1970 ed. Tanquay, Cyprien MSGR. Dictionnaire Genealogique des Familles Canadiennes. Vols. 1-7. Pawtucket, R.I.:Quintin-Rock Publication, 1982. "Town of Champlain." Plattsburgh Republican. Jan. 20, 1838. 1:1. Zoltvany, Yves F. Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil: Governor of New France 1703-1725. Toronto:McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1974. "500 Nations." CBS Television. New York:CBS My Ancestry Jean-Baptiste Briand (1658-1765) and Anne Larande Jean-Baptiste Briand-Sansregret (1681-1761) and Marie-Anne Baillargeon Jean-Baptiste Briand-Sansregret (1724-1780) and Marie-Francoise Jodoin-Larose Jean-Baptiste Eustache Brilland (1760-1839) and Marie-Therese Perron Francois-Eustache Pontbriand (1798-1878) and Felicite Vandal Joseph-Eustache Pontbriand (1823-1886) and Angeline Lepine Joseph P. Pombrio (1853-1940) and Matilde Bruso David Pombrio (1874-1918) and Addie Neddo Oral David Pombrio (1901-1981) and Blanche Albain Elizabeth Neomian Laravie David Joseph Pombrio (1934---) and Marian Patricia Baker Susan Lee Pombrio (1958---) Facebook page for Pombrio research: CHECKOUT
Jun 26, 2014 · posted to the surname Pombrio
Susan Pombrio The parade was in celebration of the school being finished.
Apr 24, 2015 · posted to the photo Boissy and Brault float, 1907
Susan Pombrio "Boissy and Brault" built the school, E'Cole de St. Pierre and the addition and remodel of St. Peter's Church. Following the death of Boissy; Fred Brault partnered with Lamarche to form, "Lamarche and Brault." They were responsible for the redecorating of the church which included the addition of the stain glass windows and all of the oil paintings.
Apr 24, 2015 · posted to the photo Boissy and Brault float, 1907